Amateka y’inkomoko y’ubuzima igice cya 5: Ivuka ry’ikiremwamuntu ku isi

Ibitabo bya siyansi bitandukanye uzasoma bivuga ko inkomoko y’ubuzima itandukanye cyane n’abemera ko ubuzima bwahanzwe n’Imana, siyansi yemeza ko ubuzima bwabayeho biturutse ku bwihindurize.

Mu bice byabanje by’iyi nkuru twarebye ibintu bitandukanye siyansi ivuga ku nkomoko y’ubuzima, icyo gihe twahereye mu myaka miliyari enye na miliyoni magana atanu ishize (4,500,000,000).

Uyu munsi tugiye guhera ku ivuka ry’ibinyabuzima byakomotseho abantu kugeza ku ivuka ry’ikiremwamuntu ku isi.

Ivuka rya primates

Mu myaka miliyoni mirongo itanu n’eshanu (55,000,000) ishize nibwo bwa mbere abasokuruza babanjirije ikiremwamuntu kubaho bagaragaye mu kibaya cya Gondwana supercontinent. Siyansi itubwira ko ibi biremwa byabanjirije ivuka ry’abantu byitwaga primates.

Bitewe n’ubwihindurize bwa stem evolution, ubwihindurize bwabagaho igihe ubutaka bw’isi bwatandukanaga, ibi byagiye bituma hari ubwoko bushya bw’ibinyabuzima bigaragara, urugero nko mu muryango w’inkegesi nibwo bwa mbere hagaragayemo ifuku.

Uko imyaka yagiye ishira, uyu mugabane rutura wa Gondwana nawo waje kwigabanyamo ibice uratandukana, igice kimwe kijya muri amerika y’amajyepfo ikindi kijya muri Afurika.

Nyuma Amerika y’epfo nayo yaje kwicamo kabiri, primates icyo gihe zihura n’ibihe by’ubwihindurize aribyo byaje gutuma zihindukamo inkende z’uyumunsi.

Mu gihe muri Afurika ho, ubwihindurize bwatumye primates zihindukamo inguge,Igihe igice cy’umugabane wabagaho ubuhinde cyiyomoraga kuri antarctica, primates zo kuri uyu mugabane zahindutsemo lorises.


Muri icyo gihe primates zagiye zihindukamo ubwoko bushya bw’ibinyabuzima bitandukanye kuri buri migabane itandukanye ndetse siyansi ivuga ko ikiremwamuntu twaba twarakomotse kuri ibi binyabuzima.

Muri icyo gihe nanone Imbere mu nda y’isi, ibikoma by’umuriro byarazamutse, bikubita urusenge rw’ubutaka butwikiriye inyanja , icyo gihe bituma amazi y’inyanja azamuka. Icyo gihe hari ubutaka bumwe bwamizwe n’amazi y’inyanja, bituma ingano y’ubutaka igabanuka.

Icyo gihe bitewe no kuzamuka kw’amazi y’inyanja, byatumye ku isi habaho ibimeze nk’imigabane ndetse itandukanye, aho ibinyabuzima bimwe byabagaho bitandukanye n’ibindi kuko ubutaka bwari bwaracitsemo ibice kandi butandukanywa n’amazi y’inyanja.

Kugongana gukomeye kwateye izimira rikomeye ry’ibinyabuzima.

Nyuma, isanzure ryarongeye rihindura ubuzima bwo ku isi.
Uruhurirane rw’imibumbe igaragiye izuba (solar system) yarongeye igongana na nebula uru ni uruhurirane rw’ibicu n’imikungugu iba mu isanzure.

Ibyavuye muri iri gongana byatumye isi yose itwikirwa n’ibicu.

Icyo gihe isi yahuye n’ibihe by’ubukonje bikomeye, byishe ibinyabuzima byinshi. Nyuma haje ikibuye kinini (meteorite) cyari gifite umurambararo usaga ibirometero 10 cyikubita mu muhora wa Yucatan.

Uku kugongwa kw’isi n’iki kibuye, nibyo byashyize iherezo ku nyamanswa za Dinosaurs. Impanuka zitandukanye zaberaga mu isanzure nizo zatumaga ku isi habaho ibihe by’ubukonje bukabije ndetse hakabaho n’izimira rikomeye ry’ibinyabuzima.

Si ibi gusa ahubwo n’imirasire y’ubukana, izwi nka cosmic rays yagwaga ku isi, yatumye habaho ubwihindurize mu turemangingo ndangasano tw’ibinyabuzima.
Iyi mirasire niyo yatumye habaho impinduka z’uturemangingondangasano aribyo byatumye habaho ubwihindurize mu buryo bworoshye.

Buri kimwe cyose kiri ku isi, cyagizweho ingaruka n’ibibera mu isanzure. Uku niko byagenze kuri dinosaurs zari zarigaruriye isi, byaje kurangira zizimiye bitewe no kugongwa ku isi igonzwe n’ikibuye cyaturutse mu isanzure.


Ikibuye cyagonze isi cyagize uruhare mu izimira ry’inyamanswa za dinosaurs.

Abantu ba mbere bagaragara ku isi

Siyansi ivuga ko ikiremwamuntu cya mbere dukomokaho cyabayeho gishaje kurusha ibindi byose cyagaragaye mu myaka isaga miliyoni ebyiri ishize (2,000,000) mbere y’uko abasokuruza ba vuba dukomokaho bita Homo Sapiens babaho.

Aba babayeho biturutse mu bwihindurize bwavuye kuri Lorisse n’inguge natwe tuza kubaho dukomotse ku basokuruza bitwaga Homo Sapiens. Amateka atubwira ko aba babayeho hagati y’imyaka ibihumbi magana atatu n’ibihumbi magana abiri (200,000-300,000)ishize .

Abantu b’icyo gihe ubwonko bwabo bwagiye bwiyongera mu ngano bituma babasha gushyiraho uburyo bw’itumanaho ry’ururimi bifashishaga bavugana hagati yabo.


Icyo gihe abantu bari bafite ubushobozi bwo gutekereza , kwibuka, gushyira mu nyurabwenge no kwiyumvira mu ntekerezo bakaba bahanga ibintu bishya.

Uko abantu batuye mu bice bitandukanye by’isi

Ikiremwamuntu cy’igitsinagore cya nyuma abantu bakomokaho cyitwaga Mitochondrial Eve. Mu myaka ibihumbi magana abiri (200,000) ishize iki kiremwa cyimutse ku mugabane wa Afurika.

Abakomotse kuri Mitochondrial Eve bageze muri Amerika ya ruguru no muri amerika y’epfo hagati y’myaka isaga ibihumbi cumi na bitanu (15,000) ishize.

Mu myaka ibihumbi icumi (10,000) ishize, Nibwo abandi bakomotse kuri mitochondrial eve bageze mu gice cy’amerika yepfo, nuko bakwirakwira ku isi yose.

Kuva icyo gihe, icyakurikiyeho ni iterambere n’impinduka mu mibereho y’ikiremwamuntu.


Uko abantu bagiye biyongera mu bwinshi, byatumye bajya gutura mu bice bitandukanye by’isi.

Ivumburwa ry’ubuhinzi

Mu myaka ibihumbi icumi (10,000) ishize nibwo abantu bavumbuye ubuhinzi no guhunika imyaka. Bakoresheje ubu buryo, icyo gihe byarashobokaga ko abantu bahorana amafunguro yo kurya ntibibasabe kujya guhiga.


Igihe abantu bavumburaga ubuhinzi, umubare w’abatuye isi watangiye kwiyongera, abantu baba benshi cyane.

Ubucuruzi bw’igurana

Mu myaka ibihumbi bitanu (5,000) ishize nibwo abantu batangiye ubucuruzi bw’igurana (barter trade) kuko nta mafaranga yabagaho, kwishyurana byabaga ari ukugurana, iyo wabonaga umuntu ufite ibijumba kandi akeneye umuceri kandi uwufite, waragendaga mukagurana ukamuha nk’igitebo cyuzuye umuceri nawe akaguha igitebo cy’ibijumba, ni uko byagendaga.


Kera nta mafaranga yabagaho, gucuruza kwari ukugurana.

Kugirango ubucuruzi butere imbere, byabaye ngombwa ko hubakwa imijyi.
Uko iminsi yagiye ihita indi igataha, imijyi mito yagiye ikura ihinduka imijyi ya leta zigenga kandi zifite amafaranga, amategeko, abashinzwe umutekano n’ingabo.

Inkundura y’amadini.

Mu myaka ibihumbi bibiri na magana ane (2,400) ishize nibwo ku isi habaye inkundura y’amadini.

Uko abantu bagiye baba benshi ku isi, ubwoko bumwe bwateraga ubundi kugirango bwigarurire ubutaka bwabo n’ubutunzi.


Abantu bashyizeho amadini kugirango babone uko bahosha ubwumvikane buke hagati y’abo.

Mu rwego rwo kwirinda imirwano, amadini yagiye akwirakwira hirya no hino ku isi aho yaciye ubuyobozi bwa cyami arwanya imirage y’ingoma no kuyobora kw’agatsiko kamwe k’ubwoko bw’abantu bamwe.

Uko iminsi yagiye ihita, abayoboraga ibihugu bagombaga gutorwa n’abaturage, ndetse icyo gihe nibwo bwa mbere amatora anyuze mu mucyo aho umuturage yahitagamo umuyobozi yagaragaye bwa mbere (amatora anyuze muri demokarasi) .

Ubu ni uburyo bw’imiyoborere itarobanura abanyagihugu, aho buri muturage yihitiramo umuyobozi kandi abaturage bose bakagira uburenganzira bungana no kwishyira ukizana kuri buri wese.

Inkundura y’inganda.

Mu myaka 300 ishize, icyo gihe nibwo habaye inkundura mu iterambere ry’inganda. Icyo gihe inkundura y’iterambere ry’inganda yatangirijwe mu bwongereza, icyo gihe bwitwaga Grande Bretagne nyuma yuko principia ya Isaac Newton yari ishyizwe hanze.

principia ya Isaac Newton yari imizingo ikubiyemo ibintu byinshi n’uyu munsi dukoresha. Uyu yashyizeho amategeko atatu azwi nka les trois lois du mouvement de Newton/ Newton’s three law of motion ndetse aya mategeko iyo witegereje usanga aya mategeko akubiyemo ibintu dukoresha buri munsi.

Itegeko rya mbere rivuga ko ikintu kidashobora kugenda, nta mbaraga runaka zigisunitse.

Itegeko rya kabiri rivuga ko umuvuduko w’ikintu runaka ufitanye isano n’ibiro byacyo n’ingano y’imbaraga ziri gusunika icyo kintu.

Itegeko rya gatatu rivuga ko imbaraga zisunika ikintu, zingana n’imbaraga icyo kintu nacyo gisunika ariko mu merekezo atandukanye, urugero iyo ukubise ikofe ku gikuta, impamvu cyitagwa nuko imbaraga ziva mu ikofi ryawe igihe ukubita igikuta, zingana n’izo igikuta kirekura ariko zo zikwerekeraho, iyi niyo mpamvu iyo ukubise igikuta, nacyo kirakwishyura, niyo mpamvu ubabara iyo ugikubise ikofi.

Icyo gihe mu myaka 300 ishize, iterambere rishya twagezeho ryatumye ikiremwamuntu cy’icyo gihe gihinduka.

Icyo gihe abantu bavumbuye uburyo bw’ubwikorezi bakoresheje gariyamoshi, ndetse icyo gihe ubwikorezi bw’ibicuruzwa bwaroroshye hagati y’ibihugu.


Bitewe n’inkundura y’inganda, abantu bavumbuye imodoka ndetse n’indege zibafasha kugenda ahantu hari intera nini cyane.

Gukoresha nabi ubumenyi bwa siyansi

Nikenshi abantu twagiye duhura n’amakuba twatewe no gukoresha nabi ubumenyi bwa siyansi aho twabukoresheje dukora ibisasu byo kwica abandi bantu.

Mu mateka y’isi ikiremwamuntu cyahuye n’intambara ebyiri z’isi aho ikiremwamuntu cyaroshye ibisasu by’ubumara bwa kirimbuzi ku kiremwamuntu mugenzi wacyo.

Intambara z’isi zose hamwe zibarurwa ko zaguyemo abantu basaga miliyoni ijana na cumi n’eshanu (115,000,000) aba bantu bose bishwe n’ikiremwamuntu basangiye ubumuntu.

Isomo ryavuye muri izi ntambara ryatumye isi ishyiraho umuryango w’abibumbye kugirango ukumire ko hazongera kubaho intambara ukundi ku isi.


Siyansi yatumye abantu bakora ibisasu byo kwica abandi bantu.

Nyuma y’intambara z’urudaca abantu binjiye mu ntambara yo gusiganwa bashaka amakuru. Nyuma yo kuvumbura mudasobwa, abantu babashije kogoga isanzure mu butumwa bw’ibyogajuru byinshi bohereje mu kirere.

Nyuma bitewe na murandasi twavumbuye, ikiremwamuntu cyiinjiye mu bihe bishya, aho abantu batuye ku migabane itandukanye icyo gihe bashoboraga kuvugana mu kanya nkako guhumbya ndetse uyu munsi birashoboka kuvugana imbonankubone n’umuntu uri ku wundi mugabane w’isi.

Ikiremwamuntu ni ubwoko bumwe bw’inyamanswa zibarizwa mu nyamabere, kuko iki cyiciro tugisangiye n’izindi nyamanswa nk’inka, ihene, injangwe, inzovu n’izindi nyamanswa nyinshi. Uyu muryango ubarizwamo ubwoko bw’inyamanswa busaga 4,500.

Nubwo hari amoko menshi y’izindi nyamanswa dusangiye icyiciro cy’inyamabere, abantu dutandukanye cyane n’izindi nyamanswa bitewe n’imiterere y’ubwonko bwacu.

Ni iki kindi cyaba gitegereje ikiremwamuntu ?

Siyansi ivuga ko mu myaka ya vuba, ikiremwamuntu kizahura n’ibyago n’amakuba akomeye ndetse amwe mu makuba akomeye twatangiye guhura nayo uyu munsi.

Reka iyi ngingo tuzayiramburire hamwe mu kindi gice cy’iyi nkuru.

Genesisbizz

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