Amateka y’inkomoko y’ubuzima igice cya gatatu

Ibitabo bya siyansi bitandukanye uzasoma bivuga ko inkomoko y’ubuzima itandukanye cyane n’abemera ko ubuzima bwahanzwe n’Imana, siyansi yemeza ko ubuzima bwabayeho biturutse ku bwihindurize.

Mu gice cya mbere n’igice cya kabiri cy’iyi nkuru twarebye ibintu bitandukanye siyansi ivuga ku nkomoko y’ubuzima, icyo gihe twahereye mu myaka miliyari enye na miliyoni magana atanu ishize (4,500,000,000). Uyu munsi tugiye guhera mu myaka miliyari ebyiri na miliyoni magana arindwi ishize kugeza ubwo tuzagera ku ivuka ry’ikiremwamuntu ku isi.

Kwihinduriza kwa mantle

Mu myaka miliyari ebyiri na miliyoni magana arindwi ishize, ibikoma by’imbere mu nda y’isi byatangiye guhora. Ahari ibisenge by’igice kinini cy’ubutaka bwigeze kurigita bukagwa mu nda y’isi mu myaka miliyari enye ishize, bugahinduka ibikoma by’umuriro, ibi bikoma bikaba byari mugice cyo hejuru cya mantle, byarahanutse bigwa mu gice cyo hasi mu nda y’isi, icyo bita lower mantle.

Igihe ibi byamanukaga, byanyeganyeje ibindi bikoma, bituma bimwe bizamuka bisubira muri mantle yo hejuru, Ibi babyita mantle overturn, kwihinduriza kwa mantle, igice kimwe cyikajya hasi ikindi cyikajya hejuru, Ibi byatumye ibikoma by’umuriro byazamutse hejuru bitobora ubutaka bubwerekeza hejuru, bituma habaho inkangu. Ibi byabaye byatumye ku isi haboneka ubutaka bw’igiye hejuru aho byoroshye ko urumuri rw’izuba rugera ndetse aho byorohereza cyanobacteria gukura.

Icyo gihe bitewe n’uburyo cyanobacteria zabaye nyinshi zikororoka, byatumye n’ingano ya Ogisijeni (Oxygen) zatangaga iba nyinshi kuburyo yatangiye gukwirakwira mu kirere cy’isi. muri icyo gihe ku ndiba z’inyanja hari ibinyabutabire bya ferrous iron aho byajyaga kwicyeneka hasi ku ndiba z’inyanja bigahinduka magnetite.

Magnetite ni ikinyabutabire kimeze nk’ibuye ry’urutare riboneka nyuma yuko iron ihuye na Ogisijeni. Hasi mu nyanja byaragiye bihakora ikirundo kinini cyabyo, Gusa nyuma y’imyaka miliyari ebyiri na miliyoni magana atanu ishize, ibirundo bya iron byari ku ndiba y’inyanja byari byaragabanutse.

Uku kugabanuka vuba kwa iron ku ndiba z’inyanja, byatumye habaho guhinduka kw’ibara ry’inyanja vuba, ihinduka ibara ry’ubururu tubona uyumunsi. Icyo gihe ubuzima bwari bumaze kuremwa nibwo bwahinduye ibidukikije byo ku butaka no mu mazi, Kimwe muri ibyo, ni ubwihindurize bw’isi n’ubwihindurize bw’ibinyabuzima byari bituye isi icyo gihe.

Iyi yari intambwe ikomeye mu buzima bwo ku isi aho yari ifite urugendo rurerure rwerekezaga mu iterambere ry’ikiremwamuntu cyari cyijyiye kuzavuka mu myaka yari igiye gukurikiraho.


Kurigita kw’igice cyo mu nda y’isi byagize uruhare rukomeye mu iremwa ry’ubuzima.

Izimira rikomeye

mu myaka miliyari ebyiri na miliyoni magana atatu ishize, Icyo gihe habayeho kugongana gukomeye kwa milky way galaxy na dwarf galaxy byari byegeranye, icyo gihe kugongana kwabaye kwahise gutuma habaho kuvuka kw’inyenyeri nyinshi mu isanzure.

Milky way galaxy ni itsinda rutura ry’inyenyeri tubarizwamo, ririmo izuba n’imibumbe yose igaragiye izuba, dwarf galaxy naryo ni itsinda ry’inyenyeri gusa ryo riba ari rito ugereranyije na milky way galaxy aho iri riba rifite miliyari nke z’inyenyeri, mu gihe milky way yo ari itsinda rutura rishobora kugira inyenyeri zisaga miliyari ijana.

Icyo gihe bitewe n’igongana ry’aya matsinda y’inyenyeri rutura, byatumye havuka izindi nyinshi, Ndetse mu bihumbii by’imyaka byakurikiyeho, izi nyenyeri zavutse zivuye muri iri turika, nazo zaje guturika nyuma uko zagiye zisaza, ibi babyita supernova explosion.

Imirasire y’ubukana bwinshi yavuye mu guturika kw’izi nyenyeri, yaje kwangiza igice cy’izuba bita heliosphere ndetse biza kurangira hari n’igeze ku isi. Iyi mirasire yavuye mu iturika ry’izi nyenyeri, niyo yaje gutuma habaho kwiyegeranya kw’imyuka yaje kuba myinshi igatwikira burundu ikirere cy’isi, ariyo tubona nk’ibicu by’uyumunsi. Icyo gihe ibi bicu byari bitwikiriye isi yose, byatumaga izuba ritava ngo rigere mu kirere no ku butaka bw’isi.

Icyo gihe isi yagiye mu bihe by’urubura rukomeye ibyo bise snowball earth, icyo gihe bitewe n’uru rubura rwinshi rwari ku isi, rwatumye habaho kuzimira kw’ibinyabuzima byinshi byishwe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere. Gusa si ibinyabuzima byose byaburiwe irengero, Bimwe muri byo byabashije kurokoka ibihe bigoye aho byari munsi y’urubura rwari rwuzuye isi.


Kugongana gukomeye byateye izimira rikomeye ryagize uruhare mu gutuma habaho ubwihindurize bwakomeje kubyara ubuzima bushya.

Iremwa ry’umugabane umwe rutura

Hagati y’imyaka miliyari imwe na miliyoni magana atanu ishize n’imyaka miliyoni magana inani ishize (1,500,000,000-800,000,000), Icyo gihe habayeho umugabane umwe rutura.

Plaques tectonique/tectonic plates, ibyo wagereranya n’ibimanyu by’urutare ubutaka bw’isi buteretseho byaje kwihuza, bikora ubutaka bwa rutura, umugabane umwe ariwo waje kwitwa nuna. Igihe nuna yabagaho, yatumye ubutaka bwariho cyanobacteria bubasha kwivanga n’ahandi hatari izi bagiteri (bacteria) zibasha gukwirakwira hirya no hino ku isi yaba mu biyaga, imigezi n’inzuri zari hafi aho.

Cyanobacteria zatangaga umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) binyuze muri photosynthesis, ubu ni uburyo ibi binyabuzima byifashisha urumuri rw’izuba rugahindura amazi n’umwuka wa carbon dioxide, bikabihinduramo umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) na gilikoze (glucose) arizo ngufu bikoresha.

Ubu buryo bwa photosynthesis si bagiteri (bacteria) zonyine zibukoresha , n’ibiti birabikora bigatanga umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen), Gusa muri icyo gihe ingano nini ya Ogisijeni (Oxygen) yakorwaga byarangiraga imizwe na cyanobacteria zapfuye, Icyo gihe ingano nto y’uyu mwuka niyo yajyaga mu kirere cy’isi.

ku butaka bw’isi, nta cyanobacteria zari zihari kuko ibisigazwa byazo byari byarasigaye munsi y’ubutaka. Ibi byatumye habaho ingaruka nziza kuko Ogisijeni (Oxygen) yari kuzatakara inyunyujwe nazo, byarangiye igiye mu kirere kuko izi bagiteri (bacterie) zari zitwikiriye munsi y’ubutaka zitari kubona uko zikoresha iyi Ogisijeni (Oxygen).

Icyo gihe bitewe n’ingano y’ubutaka bwari butwikiriye utu tunyabuzima twapfuye, yatumye habaho kudatakaza umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen), reka nkuhe urugero iyo uciye ahantu hari ikinyabuzima runaka cyapfuye, iteka ryose aho hantu haba hanuka cyane, impamvu hanuka, nuko iyo ikinyabuzima runaka gipfuye, udukoko duto cyane bita bagiteri (bacteria) turya umubiri w’icyo cyinyabuzima.

Zimwe muri bagiteri (bacteria) zifashisha umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) kugirango zibashe kubaho, urugero hari izo bita obligate aerobic bacteria, izi zifata umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) na glucose, zamara kubikoresha kugirango zibeho, ikiva muri iryo koreshwa ni umwuka wa carbon dioxide, ariwo mwuka mubi twumva unuka kuko uyu ziba zitawukeneye.

Icyo gihe rero uko ubutaka bw’isi bwakomeje kwiyongera, bugatwikira bagiteri (bacteria) zapfuye, byahise bituma ingano y’umwuka mwiza wiyongera igitaraganya kuko ubutaka bwatwikiriye ahari cyanobacteria ku butaka bituma ingano y’umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) zakoreshaga igabanuka ku butaka ahubwo yiyongera mu kirere.

Uko iminsi yagiye ihita indi igataha, Wa mugabane rutura umwe wabaga ku isi witwaga Nuna waje kwigabanyamo imigabane mito, bitewe n’ingendo ziba munsi y’urutare ubutaka bw’isi buteretseho. uko hagendaga habaho imyivumbagatanyo mu rutare rw’ubutaka aho isi iteretse, ibyo bita tectonic plates/plaques tectonique ubutaka bwisi bwaje kongera kwihuza bubyara umubumbe munini witwaga Rodinia.

Icyo gihe urusenge rutwikiriye ubutaka bwo munsi y’inyanja bwabaye nk’ubwika bujya munsi y’ubutaka butwikiriye isi, bujya mu gice cyegereye mantle, Igice cya kure cyane munda y’isi, gusa ntibyatinze, ibi bice byaje kugwa hasi kure cyane munda y’isi. Icyo gihe ibi bice byaguye mu nda y’isi, kuko byasaga nk’ibifite ubushyuhe buke ugereranyije no mu nda y’isi, bicyihagwa byatumye igice cyo munda y’isi kigabanya ubushyuhe bituma uburyo bwo guhanahana amashanyarazi imbere mu nda y’isi buhinduka.

Ibi byatumye imbaraga za rukuruzi zo munda y’isi zicika intege.


Ubutaka bw’isi bwahoze ari imbumbe, nta migabane yabagaho.

Igongana rikomeye

Hagati y’imyaka miliyoni magana arindwi na miliyoni magana atandatu (700,000,000-600,000,000) ishize, icyo gihe milkyway galaxy yarongeye igongana na dwarf galaxy, ndetse ibyavuye mu kugongana kwatumye habaho iturika rikomeye ry’inyenyeri.Icyo gihe izi nyenyeri nshya zavutse nazo zivuye muri iri turika, uko iminsi yagiye ihita indi igataha, nazo zaje gushwanyuka ndetse icyo gihe zishwanyuka zarashe imirasire y’ubumara ku isi, iyi mirasire izwi nka cosmic rays.

Icyo gihe kuko isi yari yarahuye n’ikibazo cyo kugabanuka kw’imbaraga za rukuruzi zayo, byatumye ihura n’ibibazo bikomeye kuko nta kintu na kimwe yari ifite cyari kuyikingira, icyo gihe ibicu n’urubura byatwikiriye mu kirere no ku butaka bw’isi hose.

Nyuma na nyuma ibihe by’iturika rikomeye ry’inyenyeri byakomeje kubaho
ndetse bitewe n’aya maturika, yatumye habaho ibihe by’ubushyuhe binini kurusha iby’ubukonje.

Mu bihe by’ubukonje bukabije, Habagaho kugabanuka kw’igipimo cy’umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) wabaga uri mu kirere, ndetse igabanuka ry’uyu mwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) niryo ryatumye habaho kuzimira kw’ibinyabuzima byinshi kuko uyu mwuka niwo byifashishaga.

Aya mazimira y’ubwoko bumwe bw’ibinyabuzima, ku rundi ruhande yaremye amahirwe. Uko igipimo cy’ubukonje cyagabanukaga byatumye ubuzima bwongera kwiyuburura, ibinyabuzima byarokotse bikikoramo ubundi bwoko bushya bitewe n’imihindagurikire y’uturemangingofatizo twabyo twabaga twarahindutse bitewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere.

Uko isi yakomezaga kugongwa n’iyi mirasire yavaga mu iturika ry’inyenyeri, no gukomeza kugabanuka no kwiyongera kw’igipimo cy’umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) bigenda bihindagurika. Izi mpinduka zose nizo zatumye habaho ubwihindurize bw’uturemangingofatizo tw’ibinyabuzima (genetic mutations) ndetse ubu bwihindurize nibwo bwatumaga havuka ibinyabuzima by’ubwoko bushya.

Ibihe by’iturika ry’inyenyeri byararangiye, mu nda y’isi hasubira kuba nkuko hari hameze mbere, hasubirana igipimo cy’ubushyuhe hari hafite, ndetse ibi nibyo byatumye isi isubirana imbaraga za rukuruzi nyinshi nkuko byari bimeze mbere.

Icyo gihe uko photosynthesis yakomeje gukorwa nayo yatumye igipimo cy’umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) ukomeza kwiyongera ndetse usubira nkuko wari umeze. Muri icyo gihe, ibice by’imbere mu nda y’isi, nabyo byari biri gusa n’ibisubirana igipimo cy’ubushyuhe byahoranye.

Iyo mu nda y’isi hari ubushyuhe bwinshi cyane, ibinyabutabire bigize amazi, aribyo Hydrogen na Oxygen biba biri munsi y’urutare rw’ubutaka butwikiriye inyanja, ibi byose birangira bisohotse bikagwa ku butaka bw’isi, icyo gihe iyo bisohoka, igipimo cy’amazi y’inyanja ntago cyizamuka cyangwa ngo cyimanuke.

Gusa iyo ubushyuhe bw’imbere mu nda y’isi bugabanutse bukajya munsi ya dogere Celsius 650, Icyo gihe amazi yose, ahita azamuka akajya muri mantle yo hejuru. Ibi bituma habaho kugabanuka kw’igipimo cy’amazi y’inyanja.

Ibi babyita leaking earth phenomenon, ndetse ibi ntushobora kubyirinda mu gihe imbere mu nda y’isi hari gukonja, icyo gihe biba bimeze nk’aho hari igice cy’ubutaka cyapfumutse, bigatuma amazi y’inyanja ameneka ajya imbere munda y’isi, niyo mpamvu igipimo cy’amazi y’inyanja cyigabanuka.

Icyo gihe ubwo habagaho leaking phenomenon, byatumye gatatu ku ijana (3%) by’amazi yose y’inyanja bijya mu nda y’isi mugice bita mantle. Icyo gihe ubutumburuke bw’amazi y’inyanja bwagabanutseho metero magana atandatu (600).

Ibi hari ingaruka byagize, Icyo gihe ubutaka bwo ku isi bwariyongereye, ndetse bituma ubutaka bugerwaho n’izuba bwiyongera, kuko aho amazi yari atwikiriye hari hagabanutse ndetse icyo gihe ahari kuzatura ibinyabuzima mu myaka iri imbere , hari hamaze kuboneka.

Icyo gihe imigezi yatwaraga ibitungakimera n’izindi ntungamubiri, ikabikura ku gice kimwe cy’ubutaka ibijyana mu bindi bice by’imigabane y’ubutaka. Ibi bice bindi by’ubutaka bwari bumaze kuvuka bitewe n’igabanuka ry’ubutumburuke bw’amazi y’inyanja, byatumye habaho kwiyongera kw’ingano y’umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) mu kirere cy’isi.

Uru ruhererekane nirwo rwatumye habaho ubwihindurize karundura bw’ubuzima bwa hano ku isi.


Uko isi yakomeje guhura n’impanuka ziturutse mu isanzure, byatumye hakomeza kubaho ubwihindurize bwatumye havuka ubuzima bushya.

Reka igice cya gatatu cy’amateka y’inkomoko y’ubuzima tugihinire aha, tuzakomeza igice gikurikira aho tuzahera ku byabaye mu myaka miliyoni magana atandatu na mirongo ine ishize (640,000,000) kugeza ubwo tuzagera ku ivuka ry’ikiremwamuntu ku isi. Tuzareba icyo siyansi ibivugaho.

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