Amateka y’inkomoko y’ubuzima igice cya kabiri

Ibitabo bya siyansi bitandukanye uzasoma bivuga ko inkomoko y’ubuzima itandukanye cyane n’abemera ko ubuzima bwahanzwe n’Imana, siyansi yemeza ko ubuzima bwabayeho biturutse ku bwihindurize.

Mu gice cya mbere cy’iyi nkuru twaganiriye ku nkomoko y’ubuzima buba ku isi, ndetse twahereye mu myaka miliyari enye na miliyoni magana atanu ishize (4,500,000,000) ubwo icyo gihe ku isi nta buzima bwabagaho isi imeze nk’umupira waka umuriro ugurumana.

Mu gice cya kabiri cy’iyi nkuru turahera mu gihe cyiswe Hadean Eon ndetse muri icyo gihe nibwo habayeho ikinyabuzima ubuzima bwaje gukomokaho.

Ibihe bya Hadean Eon.

Hadean Eon ni ibihe bya kera cyane ubwo ibicu n’imikungugu byabagaho, ndetse iki gihe cyabayeho hagati y’imyaka miliyari enye na miliyoni Magana atandatu no hagati y’imyaka miliyari enye ishize (4,600,000,000-4,000,000,000).

Muri icyo gihe nanone mu kirere cy’isi habagamo imirabyo n’inkuba byinshi kurusha ibyo tubona uyu munsi. Bitewe n’iyi mirabyo n’inkuba nyinshi, ibi byose byatumaga haba imihengeri mu mazi kuburyo amazi y’ibiyaga yatembaga akava mu gace kamwe akajya mu kandi bigatuma hamwe haba ubutaka bwumutse ahandi burimo amazi gutyo gutyo.

Uyu munsi kimwe mu bimenyetso biranga ikiyaga, nuko amazi yacyo adatemba, ariko ibya kera mugihe cya Hadean Eon byaratembaga.

Amazi y’ibiyaga bya kera yaratembaga.

Ibi bice by’ubutaka bwabaga bwumye ubundi burimo amazi, bukagenda busimburanwa bitewe naho inkubi y’umuyaga yabwerekezaga nanone bigaterwa naho yatwaraga amazi y’ibiyaga, Ibi ni bimwe mu byafashije gutuma habaho ubuzima.

Icyo gihe molekile nto cyane zari zigize imbumbe nto z’ibinure (fatty acid) zarihuje ziza kubyara molekile yitwa proto-life, iyi ni molekile zifatwa nk’inkingi ya mwamba mu kubaka ubuzima.

Muri icyo gihe molekile ntoya zagiye zihuza na molecule nini rwagati muri bya bice by’ubutaka bwumutse n’ibice birimo amazi, nyuma nibwo proteyine ifatwa nk’inkingi ya mbere mu gutanga ubuzima ikaba n’inyihutishakazi, nayo yatangiye gukorwa ivuye mu kwihuza kw’izi molekile zitandukanye.

Izi molekile zakomeje kugendagenda munsi y’ubutaka, ahari ubuvumo bwari bwibitsemo imbaraga za nikereyeri (Nuclear) zikongera zikagaruka i musozi zitwawe n’amazi gutyo gutyo.

Iki gikorwa cyo kuba munsi y’ubutaka no kugaruka hejuru i musozi, cyatumye haba impinduka mu miterere ya za molekile zihinduka molekile bita complex bio-molecule, izi ni molekile nini zigizwe n’uturemangingondangasano nka RNA na DNA hamwe na proteyine cyangwa se n’ibinure.

Icyo gihe molekile zitanga ubuzima izizwi nka proto-RNA hamwe n’inyihutishakazi, byaje kwihuza bihinduka molekile nini y’akaremangingo ndangasano ka RNA Iyo bita ribozymes, izi molekile zavutse icyogihe zo zari zifite ubushobozi bwo kwikoramo izindi molekile zisa nkazo, zikikoramo impanga zazo.

Muri icyo gihe nibwo icyiciro cya mbere cy’iremwa ry’ubuzima cyari kigiye gutangira, Nyuma na nyuma izi molekile zaje kwihuriza hamwe mu gikono cyari kigizwe n’ibinure, iki gihe nibwo hari habayeho icyiswe proto-cellular, utu ni uduce duto cyane dufasha mu gukora no gutanga amakuru agendanye n’uturemangingo ndangasano tw’ikinyabuzima ndetse utu duce nitwo tubika amakuru agena imiterere y’icyo kinyabuzima runaka.

Kuvuka kwa Proto life.

Mu myaka miliyari enye na miliyoni ijana ishize (4,100,000,000) nibwo havutse proto life ndetse icyo gihe cyabaye itangiriro ry’ubuzima. Kugirango tubisobanure neza biradusaba gusubira inyuma, hagati y’imyaka miliyari enye na miliyoni magana atatu na mirongo irindwi n’imyaka miliyari enye na miliyoni magana abiri ishize, ikigihe hari ibyabaye.

Iki gihe kwigabanya kw’urutare ubutaka bw’isi buteretseho byari byaratangiranye no kwirema kw’inyanja byatumye habaho kwangiza umugabane aribwo butaka bw’imbumbe bwonyine bwabaga ku isi, ndetse icyogihe hari igice cyaburiwe irengero cyigwa kure mu nda y’isi.

Mu myaka miliyari enye ishize yonyine, umubumbe umwe mugari w’isi warangiritse bitewe n’ibikorwa byo kwigabanyamo ibice by’urutare aho ubutaka bw’isi bwari buteretse, ndetse icyo gihe hari igice kinini cy’ubutaka bwisi cyangijwe n’ibi bikorwa, habanza kurigita igice kimwe cyabwo, nyuma hakurikiraho ikindi, nyuma na nyuma icyo gice cyanganaga nk’umugabane cyiburirwa irengero burundu.

Ibi byose nubwo byabaga, byabaga ku bw’impamvu, Imbere munda y’isi hari hagiye kubaho impinduka z’idasanzwe.

Igice cy’ubutaka bungana nk’umugabane cyarigise munda y’isi, bitewe n’ubushyuhe bwaho kirayonga cyiba nk’igikoma , gishonga cyerekeza kugice cya kure cyane yo mu nda y’isi, aho twakwita nko ku mutima wo mu nda y’isi.

Iki gihe kigeze ku mutima wo mu nda y’isi nyirizina ibinyabutabire cyari cyashonganye nabyo cyivanye ku butaka byatumye habaho kwivanga n’ibinyabutabire biba munda y’isi bibyara ingufu, izi ngufu nizo zaje gutuma ibikoma by’imbere munda y’isi bizamuka, ibi bikoma bizamutse nabyo byatumye ubutaka bubitwikiriye ubwo bita mantle butangira gushya nabwo burashonga.

Mu myaka miliyari enye na miliyoni magana abiri ishize, ibikoma byaka umuriro byo mu nda y’isi byari byagutse ndetse byari bitangiye kongera imbaraga za rukuruzi z’isi, icyogihe byagize ingaruka nziza kuko izi mbaraga za rukuruzi zarindaga ubutaka bw’isi kuba bwari gutwarwa n’imiyaga yaturukaga ku zuba cyangwa imirasire y’ubumara bukomeye iyitwa cosmic rays ( iyi ni imirasire ituruka ku zuba utabonesha amaso iba yihuta ku muvuduko nk’uwurumuri ndetse yangiza cyane buri kimwe igezeho) ibi byatumye ubuzima bushobora kuba bwaba ku butaka bw’isi ntibuhungabane.


kwigabanya k’ubutaka bw’isi byagize ingaruka nziza.

Ubuzima bwifashisha izuba.

Mu myaka miliyari enye na miliyoni magana abiri ishize (4,200,000,000) nibwo hatangiye ubuzima bwifashisha ingufu z’izuba.

Kugirango habeho ubuzima, ikinyabuzima runaka gikenera ingufu n’intungamubiri gikura ahantu runaka kugirango cyibashe kubaho. Kugirango ubuzima bubashe kubaho, nuko habaho uru ruhererakane rw’ubuziraherezo rw’amashanyarazi atwara intungamubiri ikinyabuzima runaka cyifashisha, urugero nk’uko telefone yawe utunze kugirango ikomeze gukora neza, bigusaba kuyihozamo umuriro ubuziraherezo ukayirinda kuzima, kuko izimye ntiba igikoze akazi kayo, bigusaba kumenya igihe cyiza cyo kuyicomeka no kuyicomora ku muriro w’amashanyarazi kuko nanone uyicometse ubiziraherezo byayica, nanone uyicometse ku muriro udahagije nabyo byayica.

Telefone yawe ikeneye umuriro uhagije utari mwinshi, kandi utari na muke, Ibi niko byagenze ku kinyabuzima cya mbere, icyo bise proto-life, iki nticyabashije kubaho muri cya gihe cyakuraga ingufu z’urumuri kuri ya nikereyeri y’ingufu z’umwimerere kuko itatangaga ingufu zihagije.

Ubwihindurize, nibwo bwonyine bwafashije ubuzima gukomeza kubaho ntibuzimire burundu, iyo ubwihindurize butabaho, birashoboka cyane ko uyumunsi wowe nanjye tutari kuba turiho. Uko ibihe byagiye bihindagurika, niko ibinyabuzima byagiye bihindura imiterere kugirango bibashe kuba muri ibyo bihe bitoroshye.

Ibinyabuzima bya kabiri byabayeho bitewe n’ubwihindurize (evolution) byo byaje byifashisha urumuri rw’izuba icyo gihe rwabashaga kugera ku butaka bw’isi, ibi binyabuzima, byakoze uburyo byafataga urumuri rw’izuba bikaruhinduramo ingufu bikeneye kugirango bikomeze kubaho.

Ibirenze ibi, ibi binyabuzima byatangiye gukoresha amasukari kugirango bibike ingufu byagombaga gukoresha mu ijoro igihe izuba ryabaga ritari kuva.


Isoko y’ingufu ku isi yavuye ku ngufu kamere za nikereyeri iba izuba.

Izimira rikomeye.

Mu myaka miliyari enye na miliyoni ijana ishize habaye izimira rikomeye. Muri icyogihe amazi y’inyanja yari yifitemo uburozi kuburyo byinshi mu binyabuzima byariho byabereyeho rimwe n’inyanja, icyo gihe byazimiye bitewe nuko byishwe n’uburozi bwabaga muri izi Nyanja.

Gusa ku bw’amahirwe hari bimwe mu binyabuzima byarokotse, ibi byarokotse imbere mu mibiri yabyo byakoze uburyo bwo kurinda kwinjirwamo n’ibindi binyabutabire ndetse bimwe byatangiye kwihuza byikoramo ubundi bwoko bw’ibinyabuzima binini. Muri ikigihe, uturemangingondangasano twa RNA ntitwari dufite ishusho ikomeye, bitewe n’ubwihindurize nanone bwatumye, Utu turemangingondangasano twa R N A duhindura imiterere duhinduka D N A zishobora guhanahana amakuru hagati y’ibisekuruza bitandukanye.

Icyogihe nibwo igice cya gatatu cy’itangiriro ry’ubuzima cyari kibayeho ndetse icyogihe nibwo hatangiye ivuka ry’utunyabuzima duto cyane twitwaga prokaryotic organisms, utu watugereranya n’abasokuruza ba kera ba arisheya na bagiteri (archaea & bacteria) tubona uyumunsi.

Umwaka w’ibinyabuzima bikoresha izuba.

Mu myaka miliyari ebyiri na miliyoni magana icyenda ishize, icyogihe cyiswe umwaka w’ibinyabuzima bikoresha izuba.

Umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) iyo uwuvanze n’ikindi kinyabutabire, ushobora guhinduka uburozi, Ogisijeni ni umwuka mwiza duhumeka, gusa nk’urugero ufashe Ogisijeni ukayivanga na Karuboni (Carbon), ikigihe bibyara Carbon Dioxide, uyu mwuka niwo tubona mu myotsi igihe ducanye inkwi n’amakara, tekereza uwagushyira mu cyumba gifunganye cyuzuyemo imyotsi y’inkwi, igihe kinini wamara uri muzima cyangana n’amasegonda wabasha kumara udahumeka, abenshi ntibarenza imonota ibiri kuko iyo bibaye uta ubwenge, ukicwa no kubura umwuka.

Ibi nibyo byumvikanisha neza impamvu ibinyabuzima bya mbere byabayeho bikoresha urumuri rw’izuba, byari ibyo bita anaerobic microbe, ibi bikoresha ingufu z’urumuri rw’izuba, ariko ntibyifashishe Ogisijeni nkuko tuzi ibinyabuzima byinshi uyumunsi byifashisha urumuri rw’izuba bitanga umwuka wa Ogisijeni uvuye mu kwivumbagatanya bikora (reaction).

Uko ubuzima bwakomeje kugenda buhinduka umunsi ku munsi, byabaye ngombwa ko ibinyabuzima bitangira gukoresha urumuri rw’izuba ariko bigakoresha n’umwuka wa Ogisijeni nk’indi nkunga y’inyongera yabifashaga mu kubona ingufu. Ibi nibyo byatumye habaho agakoko gato cyane bagiteri (cyanobacteria) ya mbere. Izi bagiteri zatangaga umwuka wa Ogisijeni zifashishije urumuri rw’izuba, Ikigihe izi bagiteri zafataga amazi zikayateranya n’umwuka wa Carbon Dioxide, zifashishije ingufu z’urumuri rw’izuba, ibi zibihinduramo gilikoze( glucose) arizo ngufu zikoresha n’umwuka wa Ogisijeni, Ibi mu ndimi za tekiniki babyita photosynthesis.

Si bagiteri zonyine zikora iki gikorwa, ibiti nabyo bikora ibi tumaze kuvuga hejuru, aho bifata umwuka mubi wa Karuboni bigafata n’ibitonyanga by’amazi, burigihe izuba ryarasa, ibi bikabihinduramo umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni duhumeka, niyo mpamvu batubwira ko ibiti ari ingenzi kandi ko bitanga ubuzima ni kimwe na bagiteri, hari bagiteri mbi zitera indwara ariko hari n’inziza, zose siko ari mbi.

Uko izi cyanobacteria zagiye ziba nyinshi, niko n’umwuka wa oxygen wagiye uba mwinshi mu mazi y’inyanja, ibi bituma habaho kugabanuka kw’icyinyabutabire cya iron cyabonekaga mu ishusho ya iron oxide mu mazi, ibi byateye kugabanuka kw’ikigero cy’umunyu mu mazi y’inyanja gusa nubwo ibyo byose byabaye, amazi y’inyanja yari arimo ingano y’umunyu wikubye incuro zisaga eshanu ugereranyije n’umunyu amazi y’inyanja afite uyumunsi.


udukoko twa bagiteri (bacteria) twatumye habaho kugabanuka kw’igipimo cy’umunyu mu nyanja.

Reka igice cya kabiri cy’amateka y’inkomoko y’ubuzima tugihinire aha, tuzakomeza igice gikurikira aho tuzahera ku byabaye mu myaka miliyari ebyiri na miliyoni magana arindwi ishize kugeza ubwo tuzagera ku ivuka ry’ikiremwamuntu ku isi. Tuzareba icyo siyansi ibivugaho.

Genesisbizz

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