Amateka y’inkomoko igice cya 4: Uburyo kugongana gukomeye kwateye amazi kubyara ubuzima

Ibitabo bya siyansi bitandukanye uzasoma bivuga ko inkomoko y’ubuzima itandukanye cyane n’abemera ko ubuzima bwahanzwe n’Imana, siyansi yemeza ko ubuzima bwabayeho biturutse ku bwihindurize.

Mu bice byabanje by’iyi nkuru twarebye ibintu bitandukanye siyansi ivuga ku nkomoko y’ubuzima, icyo gihe twahereye mu myaka miliyari enye na miliyoni magana atanu ishize (4,500,000,000).

Uyu munsi tugiye guhera mu myaka miliyoni magana atandatu na mirongo ine ishize (640,000,000) kugeza ubwo tuzagera ku ivuka ry’ikiremwamuntu ku isi.

Imihindagurikire y’ikirere ikomeye

Mu myaka miliyoni magana atandatu na mirongo ine ishize, icyo gihe ku isi habaye imihindahurikire y’ikirere ikomeye cyane ndetse uko iyi mihindagurikire yabaga, buri gihe byatumaga habaho ubwihindurize kugirango ibinyabuzima bibashe kurokoka izo mpinduka zabaga zabaye.

Mu myaka miliyoni magana atandatu ishize, icyo gihe ku isi habaye imihindagurikire y’ikirere ikomeye cyane ndetse uko iyi mihindagurikire yabaga, buri gihe byatumaga habaho ubwihindurize kugirango ibinyabuzima bibashe kurokoka izo mpinduka zabaga zabaye.

Icyo gihe ibinyabuzima bito bya prokaryotes na eukaryotes byari byarabayeho ari byo bwoko bunini bw’ibinyabuzima, bibana mu bihe bigoye byose, gusa rimwe habaye ubwihindurize bitewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere, icyo gihe havuka ibindi binyabuzima bishya, ndetse byari bikubye inshuro zisaga miliyoni ingano ya Eukaryotes ndetse byari byikubye inshuro zisaga triliyoni imwe ingano ya Prokaryotes.

Icyo gihe nibwo habayeho ikinyabuzima cyigizwe n’uturemangingo turenze kamwe, wibuke ko mu gice cya mbere twabonye ko ibinyabuzima bya mbere byo byabaga bigizwe n’akaremangingo kamwe, ibyo bitaga single celled life.


Imihindagurikire y’ikirere yagize uruhare mu iremwa ry’ubuzima.

Izimira rikomeye

Mu myaka miliyoni magana atanu na mirongo inani ishize (580,000,000) icyo gihe ku isi haje ibihe by’urubura rukomeye ndetse ibyo bihe nibyo byateje izimira ry’ibinyabuzima bibarirwa mu ma miliyoni.

Uko iminsi yagiye ishira indi igataha, nanone icyo gihe cy’urubura cyararangiye, isi yongera kugira igipimo cy’ubushyuhe cyiringaniye.

Icyo gihe ibinyabutabire nka phosphorus n’ibindi nkenerwa mu buzima byagendaga binyanyagira ku butaka uko imvura yagwaga cyangwa bigatwarwa n’umuyaga bigahererekanwa hirya no hino ku isi no mu mazi y’inyanja.

Icyo gihe nibwo inyamanswa za mbere zo mu gihe cya Ediacaran zagaragaye bwa mbere. Dickinsonia, ubu ni bumwe mu bwoko bw’izi nyamanswa, nibura zimwe zishobora kuba zarakuraga kuburyo zagiraga uburebure bungana na metero imwe.

Izi nyamanswa zagiraga umubiri worohereye cyane kuburyo nta gikono cyangwa amagufa zagiraga. Izi nyamanswa zakundaga kuba ahantu hagufi kandi hari amazi y’akazuyazi, ahageraga ubushyuhe buturutse ku zuba muburyo bwihuse.


Izimira rikomeye ry’ibinyabuzima ryagize uruhare mu kuvuka kw’ibinyabuzima bishya.

Ivuka ry’inyamanswa zifite amagufa

Mu myaka miliyoni magana atanu na mirongo itanu ishize (550,000,000) ibitungakimera byavaga mu butaka byari biri kwiyongera ndetse uko byiyongeraga ni nako ingano y’umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) wiyongeraga.

Icyo gihe ingano ya ferrous iron mu Nyanja yariyongereye, ndetse icyo gihe uko yahuraga na atome ya Ogisijeni (Oxygen) niko buri gihe yiyongeraga.

Icyo gihe nabwo ingano ya phosphorus na calcium mu mazi y’inyanja yariyongereye, ndetse uko inyamanswa zagiye zikoresha izi ntungamubiri n’iyi myunyungugu byaje gutuma habaho ubwihindurize, bituma habaho kuvuka kw’inyamanswa zifite amagufa n’ibikono.

Urugero: imyunyungugu ya calcium yafashije microdictyon kuyirinda izindi nyamanswa, icyo gihe umubiri w’izi nyamanswa wazifashaga gukora ubwirinzi zigakora igikono gikomeye.

Uko ubuzima bwakomeje kubaho, umunsi ku munsi niko izi ntungamubiri zakomezaga gukoreshwa n’izi nyamanswa umunsi ku munsi.


Ikoreshwa ry’imyunyungugu ryatumye ku isi hagaragara inyamanswa zifite amagufa.

Imihindagurikire y’ikirere ikomeye

Mu myaka miliyoni magana atanu na mirongo ine ishize (540,000,000) Icyo gihe isi yahuye n’ibindi bihe by’imihindagurikire y’ikirere.

Isi yagiye ihura n’ibibazo byo kwiyongera k’ubushyuhe bukabije , ikongera ikagira ibibazo byo kwibasirwa n’ubukonje bukabije, ndetse ibi byamaze igihe kingana n’imyaka isaga miliyoni 10 biba ubukonje bukabije busimburana n’ubushyuhe bukabije.

Iyi mihindagurikire y’ibihe, niyo yaje kwica ibinyabuzima bya Ediacaran fauna. Gusa nubwo ibi byabaye, ubwoko bushya bw’ibinyabuzim bwari bugiye kuvuka.

Imirasire tutabonesha amaso iba mu nda y’isi, yagiye igira akamaro mu bw’ihindurize bw’ubuzima hano ku isi.

Dore uburyo bigenda.

Hari igice aho ubutaka bw’isi busaduka bukazanyuramo ibikoma by’umuriro igihe hazaba iruka ry’ibirunga hagasohoka n’imirasire ituruka munda y’isi, ibi bice babyita continental rift.

Iyi mirasire isohoka mu nda y’isi, niyo yagiye iba imwe mu nkingi za mwamba zo gutuma habaho kuvuka kw’ibinyabuzima bishya.

Ibi babyise stem evolution, icyo gihe ibinyabuzima bishya byagiye bivuka kuri buri continental rift yari iri ku isi. Igihe habagaho kwigabanya k’urutare ubutaka bw’isi buteretseho, ubuzima bwagiye bukura ndetse bubaho mu buryo butandukanye kuri buri gace gato k’imigabane itandukanye.

Igihe imigabane mito yongeraga kwihuza, Icyo gihe habayeho kubangurirana no kwihuza k’ubuzima bw’ibinyabuzima bitandukanye.

Icyo gihe mu mugabane witwaga Gondwana supercontinent, ibangurirana ryabaye rivuye mu guhura kw’ibinyabuzima bitandukanye ryatumye habaho ivuka ry’ubuzima n’ibinyabuzima bishya.

Ibi ni ibyo bita crown evolution, ubwihindurize bufite ishusho nk’iyikamba, icyo gihe ibinyabuzima byinshi bivuka mu buryo bw’ishusho isa nk’iyikamba ry’umwami.

Icyo gihe igongana ry’imigabane ryatumye havuka ubwoko bwinshi bw’ibinyabuzima biba ku butaka. Icyo gihe mu bunigo no mu bibaya by’imigabane minini niho hari intungamubiri n’ibitungakimera byinshi.

Bitewe no gukoresha izi ntungamubiri, ibinyabuzima bimwe byatangiye gukura mu buryo bwihuse. Icyo gihe ibinyabuzima byitwaga Cambrian byaje gukura ndetse biza kubyara ubundi bwoko busaga 35 bwa phyla. Izi phyla nizo zaje kuvamo ubwoko bw’ibimera n’inyamanswa tubona uyumunsi.

Hari uburyo butatu bushoboka cyane ubuzima bwabayeho.

Izimira rikomeye ryagiye rituma ibinyabuzima bimwe bizimira ariko muri uko kuzimira hakavuka ibindi bikomotse ku byarokotse ariko byo byarahinduye imiterere.

Stem evolution, ubu ni ubwihindurize bwatumye habaho imihindagurikire y’uturemangingofatizo tw’ibinyabuzima igihe umugabane w’isi wigabanyagamo ibice.

Crown evolution, ubu nabwo ni ubwihindurize bwabayeho, gusa ubu bwatewe no kwihuza kw’ibinyabuzima, igihe ya migabane yatandukanye yongeraga kwihuza.


Imihindagurikire y’ikirere yagize uruhare mu gutuma habaho kuzimira kw’ibinyabuzima bimwe ariko hakanavuka ibindi bishya.

Igihe cya paleozoic era

Iki ni igihe cyabayeho mu isi ya kera cyane hagati y’imyaka miliyoni magana atanu na mirongo ine n’ebyiri (542,000,000) na miliyoni magana abiri na mirongo itanu ishize (250,000,000), muri iyi myaka ni byinshi byabayemo.

Muri icyo gihe amazi y’inyanja yari afite ingano y’umunyu mwinshi ukubye incuro zisaga eshanu ugereranyije n’umunyu usangwa mu nyanja uyu munsi.

Mu myaka miliyoni magana atandatu ishize amazi y’inyanja yari yaragabanyije igipimo cy’umunyu.

Umunyu wo mu nyanja wari uri ku butaka uri mu ishusho y’urutare runini rw’umunyu. Uko igipimo cy’amazi y’inyanja cyakomezaga kugabanuka, niko hasigaraga ubutaka bunini bushinyitse burangaye, ndetse ibi byatumaga n’igipimo cy’umunyu cyigabanuka kuko ahasigaraga ubu butaka, hasigaraga n’ibimanyu by’umunyu binini.

Nubwo igipimo cy’amazi y’inyanja cyiyongeraga ku buryo cyageraga na hahandi habaga hari ibitare binini by’umunyu, N’ubundi ibyinshi muri byo byabaga byarumagaye ku buryo bitivangaga n’amazi.

Uko igipimo cy’umunyu uri mu nyanja cyakomezaga kugabanuka, niko byatumaga amazi y’inyanja abasha guturwamo n’ibinyabuzima byinshi kandi bitandukanye. Icyo gihe mu nyanja no ku nkengero zazo hari hagiye kuboneka ibinyabuzima bishya.

Icyo gihe uko ingano y’umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) yiyongeraga mu kirere, byaje gutuma habaho kwirema kwa Ozone mu gice cyo mu kirere cy’isi.

Ozone ni igice cyo mu kirere cy’isi kigizwe n’uruvangavange rw’imyuka itandukanye, umumaro w’iyi myuka ukaba ari ugutangira imirasire ikomeye iva kuzuba, ikayigabanyiriza ubukana ikagera ku isi ifite ubukana buke, butakwangiza ubuzima.

Ozone nanone bayita akayunguruzo k’izuba, kuko kayungurura imirasire igera hano ku isi, ku buryo ihagera ifite ubukana buke butakwica umuntu, ibihingwa n’ibindi binyabuzima.

Bitewe n’ibi, usibye mu Nyanja z’isi, no ku butaka bwo ku isi, naho hari hahindutse ahantu hashobora kuba haturwa n’ibinyabuzima kandi ntibihungabane.


Amazi y’inyanja yashoboraga kuba yaturwamo n’ibinyabuzima bitandukanye.

Ubuzima bwa mbere bwabyawe n’amazi

Mu myaka miliyoni magana atanu na mirongo ine ishize (540,000,000) urubobi nirwo rwabaye ubuzima bwa mbere bwari bubyawe n’amazi ndetse rwabayeho mbere y’uko inyamanswa tuzi uyu munsi zibaho.

Igihe inyamanswa z’inigwahabiri zazaga ku isi, zatumye habaho ubwihindurize mu bimera bitandukanye.

Mu gihe cyiswe Cambrian explosion, iki cyari igihe cy’ubwihindurize cyabayeho mu gihe cyingana n’imyaka hagati ya miliyoni 13 na miliyoni 25 aho icyo gihe cyaranzwe n’ubwihindurize mu nyamanswa zo mu bwoko bwa phyla aho zaje guhinduka ubwoko bushya bwa phyla zigezweho ari n’aho inyamanswa zifite urutirigongo zatangiye kugaragara, urugero nk’amafi.

Ubushakashatsi butubwira ko amafi ari ikinyabuzima gishaje kurusha ibindi byose abantu dushobora kuba twarakomotseho.

Uko ubwihindurize bwakomeje kuba mu mafi, byageze ubwo habaho ubwoko bw’amafi yitwaga lchthyostega, aba ni abasokuruza ba cyera cyane abo ibikeri bikomokaho.

Ibimera byakomeje gukura bikarandaranda, ndetse ibi bimera byatangaga umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) bitewe na photosynthesis bikora, ubu ni uburyo ibimera nk’ibiti bifata umwuka mubi wa carbon dioxide (CO2) hamwe n’ibitonyanga by’amazi (H2O) bikabihinduramo umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) inyamanswa n’abantu bashobora guhumeka, ndetse ibi byose ibi bimera bikabikora byifashishije urumuri rw’izuba.

Icyo gihe nibura ibiti n’ibimera byatangaga umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) ukubye inshuro imwe n’ibice bitanu ugereranyije n’ingano y’umwuka mwiza wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen)ibiti bitanga uyu munsi.

Nyuma ibisigazwa by’ibi biti n’ibimera bitandukanye byahindukagamo nyiramugengeri, iyi nyiramugengeri niyo yaje gufasha ikiremwamuntu cya mbere cyatangije impinduramatwara y’inganda.

Nyuma na nyuma, ku butaka bw’isi hatangiye kugaragara inyamanswa zifite ibihaha zaturutse ku bw’ihindurize bw’inyamanswa zabaga mu mazi.

Icyo gihe ubwihindurize mu nyamanswa ntibwarekeye aho, kuva ku mafi yaje kuvamo ubwoko bw’ibikeri, nabyo biza kuvamo ibikururanda nabyo biza kuvamo dinosaurs nyuma na nyuma nazo ziza kuvamo inyamabere nyuma na nyuma abantu natwe tubona kuza.


Amazi niyo ibinyabuzima bitandukanye byakuyeho ubuzima.

Kugongana gukomeye

Hagati y’imyaka miliyoni magana abiri na mirongo itandatu (260,000,000) n’imyaka miliyoni magana abiri na mirongo itanu (250,000,000) ishize, icyo gihe solar system, uruhurirane rw’imibumbe n’ibigendajuru bigaragiye izuba byose byagonganye na nebula yijimye, uru rukaba ari uruhurirane rugizwe n’imikungugu n’ibicu biremereye byo mu isanzure.

Igihe iri gongana ryabaga, imirasire ikomeye yarashwe ku isi bitewe n’uko uruhurirane rw’imibumbe igaragiye izuba ariho n’isi ibarizwa byose byagonganye na nebula bigatera iturika rikomeye ryatumye haraswa imirasire y’ubumara ku isi, iyi izwi nka cosmic rays. Ni imirasire y’ubumara bukomeye iba igenda ku muvuduko w’urumuri kuburyo utabasha kuyibonesha ijisho.

Iri gongana ryatumye isi yinjira mu bindi bihe by’urubura rukomeye cyane,
Ibimera biri mu bintu bya mbere byibasiwe n’ingaruka z’iri gongana, ibi nabyo byahise bituma ingano y’umwuka mwiza wa oxygen wabonekaga mu kirere cy’isi ugabanuka cyane.

Icyo gihe kugabanuka k’umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) byatumye hapfa inyamanswa nyinshi zo mu muryango w’ibikururanda n’inigwahabiri zitandukanye. Icyo gihe hari bimwe mu binyabuzima byarokotse, gusa nabyo byahuye n’andi mahurizo akomeye kuko byagombaga gukora uko bishoboye bigakomeza kubaho kandi imimerere yari ku isi yari mibi cyane.

Bimwe mu binyabuzima bidakenera umwuka wa Ogisijeni (Oxygen) , ibyo bita micro-organisme anaérobie, byabashije gukomeza kubaho bimwe biba munsi y’amazi ibindi munsi y’ubutaka.

Ibi byatumye ibi binyabuzima bibasha kororokera ku butaka no mu mazi hose.
Igihe ibiti n’ibimera byongeraga gushibuka, ingano y’umwuka wa Ogisijeni(Oxygen) nayo yariyongereye ndetse byatumye izi micro-organisme anaérobie ziga uburyo zagombaga kubaho mu mpinduka zigoye ahantu hari Ogisijeni (oxygen) nyinshi kandi zo zimenyereye kuba ahantu hatari umwuka.

Icyo gihe byasaga nk’ibitegura ikindi cyiciro cy’ubwihindurize bwari kuba bugiye gukurikiraho. Muri icyo gihe, ibinyabuzima bishya byari kuzavamo abantu, byari byegereye kuvuka.

Turi ku mugabane rutura w’isi, icyo gihe witwaga pangea.

Icyo gihe ibikururanda n’inyamabere nibwo byatangiye kugaragara aho byatangiye gukora ubwihindurize bitewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere.

Mu gihe ibikururanda byihinduranyijemo amoko atandukanye y’ibindi binyabuzima.
Inyamanswa z’inyamabere zo zagumye zingana nk’imbeba z’iki gihe.

Icyo gihe inyamabere zabaga mu bicucu by’ibiti n’imyobo. Ubwihindurize nibwo bwatumye ibikururanda bimwe bihinduka dinosaurs, ndetse muri icyo gihe ubwo dinosaurs zageraga ku isi, inyamanswa z’ibikururanda nizo zategekaga isi kuko nizo nyamanswa nini zabagaho.

Icyo gihe dinosaurs iyo zarwanaga n’izindi nyamanswa nizo zatsindaga imirwano ndetse zigakomeza kubaho, kuko inyamanswa zimwe zigomba kubaho aruko ziriye izindi, iryo ni itegeko twasanzeho, kugirango inka ibeho, irya ibyatsi, umuntu kugirango nawe abeho arya inka n’ibyatsi.

Icyo gihe dinosaurs nizo nyamanswa zaryaga izindi kuko nizo zari zifite ingufu kurusha ubundi bwoko bw’inyamanswa bwabagaho.

Wa mugabane rutura w’isi icyo gihe witwaga pangea waje gutandukana, bitewe n’ingendo z’urutare rw’ubutaka bw’isi buba buteretseho, icyo gihe byatumye habaho ubwihindurize, stem evolution, kuko dinosaurs zagiye kuba mu bice bitandukanye by’isi aho zahuye n’impinduka zitandukanye bitewe n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere yatumye zihinduka bitewe naho ziri.

Nyuma igice cya pangea y’amajyaruguru cyari cyarigabanyijemo ibice cyongeye kwihuza, Hongera kuba ubwihindurize bwitwa crown evolution bitewe nuko dinosaurs zimwe zagiye zibangurirana n’izindi hakavuka ubwoko bushya bwa dinosaurs.

Uku kwisubiranya k’ubutaka bwisi byatumye habaho kuvuka k’ubuzima bushya nuko ubwo bwoko bushya bw’ibinyabuzima bigenda bikwirakwira mu bindi bice by’isi.

Muri icyo gihe dinosaurs zarororotse cyane zikwirakwira ku isi. Mu isi y’ibimera, angiosperm nibwo bwa mbere zatangiye kugaragara.

Ibi bimera byifashishaga inyamanswa zitandukanye kugirango zibangurirane, uku niko ibi bimera byakomeje gukura no kwiyongera mu bwinshi.


Uko isi yahuye n’impanuka zitandukanye ziturutse mu isanzure byatumye ibinyabuzima bimwe bizimira havuka ibindi.

Reka igice cya kane cy’amateka y’inkomoko y’ubuzima tugihinire aha, tuzakomeza igice gikurikira aho tuzahera ku ivuka rya primates. Aba bakaba ari abasokuruza babanjirije ivuka ry’ikiremwamuntu kugeza ubwo abantu natwe twageze ku isi. Tuzareba icyo siyansi ibivugaho.

Genesisbizz

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