Dore uko bigenda iyo internet ibuze

Ku meza ye yegutse aho aba yitegeye umurwa mukuru Addis-Abeba wa Ethiopia, Markos Lemma aba areba neza uyu mujyi.

Nk’uwashinze inzu y’ikoranabuhanga rwa internet yo muri uwo mujyi izwi ku izina rya IceAddis, akunze kugendererwa n’abikorera baba banywa ku ikawa kandi ariko bafite n’inzozi zikomeye z’ejo hazaza.

Ariko iyo internet ibuze, ibijyanye n’akazi biba bimurangiranye.

Amakuru BBC yabonye y’ubushakashatsi bw’ikigo Access Now giharanira uburenganzira bwo kuri internet, agaragaza ko mu mwaka ushize ibikorwa byo kuri internet byahagaritswe ku bushake inshuro zirenga 200 mu bihugu 33 bitandukanye.

Aho harimo, n’inshuro imwe, ibyabaye mu Bwongereza.

Mu kwezi kwa kane mu mwaka wa 2019, polisi yo mu Bwongereza ikurikirana ibyo gutwara abantu n’ibintu yafunze uburyo bwa internet rusange, wi-fi, ku ngendo zo munsi y’ubutaka mu gihe cy’imyigaragambyo y’impirimbanyi zo mu itsinda ’Extinction Rebellion’ zishishikariza za leta kwita ku bidukikije zibinyujije mu buryo butagize uwo buhutaza.

Ibindi byahishuwe muri icyo cyegeranyo cyo mu mwaka ushize wa 2019 ni:

Internet yarahagaritswe mu gihe cy’imyigaragambyo 65 mu bihugu bitandukanye byo ku isi
Internet kandi yanahagaritswe inshuro 12 mu gihe cy’amatora
Igice kinini cy’iryo hagarikwa cyabereye mu Buhinde
Igihe kirekire cyane internet yahagaritswe ni mu gihugu cya Tchad, muri Afurika yo hagati, aho yahagaritswe mu gihe cy’amezi 15
Mu mujyi wa Addis-Abeba, iyo internet ihagaze, buri kintu cyose kirahagarara, nkuko Markos Lemma abivuga.

Ati: "Nta muntu uba ukinjiye - kand niyo yinjiye nta kanya amara kuko nta internet, ni iki kindi yakora?"

"Twari dufite kontaro yo gukora ’software’ iburizwamo kuko tutari kugishoboye gutangira ku gihe ibyo twasabwaga, kuko...nta internet yari ihari.

"Twagiye tugira n’igihe aho abakiriya bacu bo mu mahanga batekereza ko ’business’ zacu ziri kubirengagiza, ariko nta kintu na kimwe dushobora kubikoraho".

Abatwara za moto baba bategereje, aho gushyira abakiriya ibyo kurya batumije baciye kuri internet. Nta internet ihari, abantu ntibashobora gutumiza ibyo kurya bifashishije internet cyangwa bakoresheje ’apps’, nkuko Markos abivuga.

Ati: "Gufungwa kwa internet kugira ingaruka y’ako kanya kuri ’business’ no ku bantu hano".

Gufunga internet
Ntabwo ari muri Ethiopia gusa, kandi ingaruka ntabwo iba ku bukungu gusa. Ubushakashatsi bw’ikigo Access Now bugaragaza ko igenda ry’umuriro w’amashanyarazi rigira ingaruka ku bantu babarirwa muri za miliyoni mirongo ku isi kandi mu buryo butandukanye.

Abategetsi bo muri za leta bashobora "gufunga" internet bakabikora bategeka za kompanyi zikora mu byo gutanga internet gufunga imiyoboro ijyana mu turere runaka - cyangwa rimwe na rimwe, bafunga ibikorwa runaka byo kuri internet.

Imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu ifite impungenge zuko izo ngamba zikomeje kuba igikoresho gikomeye gikoreshwa na za leta zo ku isi mu gukandamiza abo batavuga rumwe.

Ayo makuru mashya y’ubushakashatsi yasesenguwe na BBC agaragaza ko kubura kwa internet gukomeje kugenda kugirana isano no mu gihe hari imyigaragambyo.

Za leta akenshi zivuga ko kubura kwa internet ari mu rwego rwo gufasha mu kubungabunga umutekano wa rubanda ndetse no mu guhagarika ikwirakwira ry’amakuru y’ibinyoma.

Ariko abatavuga rumwe na leta bavuga ko ubwo buryo ari ubwo kuniga ihererekanywa ry’amakuru ku mbuga za internet - ndetse no kwibasira ushobora kutavuga rumwe na za leta, mu gihe nta internet ihari.

Mu mwaka wa 2016, umuryango w’abibumbye (ONU/UN) watangaje ko kugera kuri internet ari uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu, kandi kuba abantu bose bageze kuri internet ni imwe mu ntego z’iterambere rirambye za ONU.

Ariko si ko abategetsi bose babikurikiza.

Mu kwezi kwa munani mu mwaka wa 2019, Abiy Ahmed, Minisitiri w’intebe wa Ethiopia, yavuze ko internet "atari amazi cyangwa umwuka" kandi ko gufunga internet bizakomeza kuba uburyo bw’ingenzi bwo gutuma habaho ituze mu gihugu.

Ibyo Markos biramurakaza.

Ati: "Leta ntibona ko internet ari ingenzi. Ntekereza rwose ko bibwira ko internet ari iyo kujya gusa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga, rero ntibabona agaciro kayo ku bukungu n’ingaruka ibyo bigira ku bukungu".

Ubuhinde ni bwo buza ku isonga mu gufunga internet
Ayo makuru mashya y’ubushakashatsi bwo mu mwaka wa 2019 agaragaza ko kugeza ubu Ubuhinde ari bwo bufite umubare uri hejuru cyane mu gufunga internet ugereranyije no mu bindi bihugu mu mwaka ushize.

’Data’ zo kuri telefone zigendanwa cyangwa ku mirongo migari ya internet zarahagaritswe ku baturage bo mu bice bitandukanye by’igihugu inshuro 121, nyinshi muri zo (zingana na 67%) zikaba ari izo mu ntara itavugwaho rumwe ya Kashmir itegekwa n’Ubuhinde.

Ndetse n’abigaragambya muri Sudan no muri Iraq byabaye ngombwa ko bategura ibikorwa byabo mu bundi buryo nyuma yaho internet ifungiwe.

Ingaruka buri fungwa rya internet rigira ziratandukanye cyane bigendeye ku ngano y’ifungwa ryayo: kuva ku gufungwa kw’imbuga nkoranyambaga mu gace runaka kugeza ku ifungwa rya internet ahantu hose mu gihugu.

Uburyo buzwi nka "throttling" ni igikorwa cyo gufunga internet kigoye kurushaho kukigenzura. Kibaho iyo leta igabanyije umuvuduko wa ’data’ zo kuri internet.

Za leta zishobora gufata internet yihuta cyane ya 4G yo kuri telefone zigendanwa yo muri iki gihe, zigatuma igenda ikururuka nkaho ari iya 2G yo mu myaka ya 1990, ntibibe bigishobotse gusangiza za videwo cyangwa gutangaza ibikorwa mu buryo bwa videwo mu gihe cy’imbona nkubone cyangwa biri kuba.

Ibi byabaye mu kwezi kwa gatanu mu mwaka ushize wa 2019, ubwo Perezida wa Tajikistan yemeraga ko ibikorwa byo ku mbuga nyinshi nkoranyambaga nka Facebook, Twitter na Instagram byagendeshejwe nk’akanyamasyo, avuga ko "zashoboraga kwifashishwa n’abakora iterabwoba".

Ibihugu bimwe, nk’Uburusiya na Iran, muri iki gihe biri kubaka no gusuzuma uburyo bwabyo bwo kubaho nta internet ihari mu gihugu - bitekerezwa ko ari ikimenyetso cyo kugenzura birushijeho ibibera kuri internet.

Ikigo Access Now giharanira uburenganzira bwuko abantu bakoresha internet kigira kiti:

"Bisa nkaho ibihugu bikomeje kwiyongera kimwe kigira ku kindi ndetse gishyira mu bikorwa uburyo bwa ’nikleyeri’ [cyangwa bumaramaje] bwo gufunga internet mu rwego rwo gucececyesha abo batavuga rumwe, cyangwa mu rwego rwo gukora irindi honyora ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu nta muntu ubireba".

Genesisbizz

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