Kuki indwara nka coronavirus ziri kwiyongera ?

Mu myaka 30 ishize, umubare w’indwara z’ibyorezo ziterwa na virusi kandi zikwirakwira byihuse nka coronavirus mu Bushinwa ubu - wariyongereye kurusha mbere. Ariko se biterwa n’iki?

Ni ibintu bigaragara ku buryo bworoshye ko kuri ubu dutuye isi turi benshi cyane kurusha mu kindi gihe kigeze kubaho - ubu abatuye isi ni miliyari 7.7 kandi bakomeje kwiyongera.

Dukomeje kandi gutura mu buryo bwegeranye kurushaho.

Abantu benshi batuye mu buryo bw’ubucucike, ibyo bivuze ko hari ibyago biri hejuru cyane byo guhura n’ibitera indwara.

Abantu muri Thailand barimo basigaye bambara ibibapfuka nyuma yaho ba mukerarugendo batandatu bo mu Bushinwa basanganwe coronavirus
Indwara ya coronavirus isa nk’iyandura ivuye ku muntu umwe akayanduza undi gutyo gutyo iyo habayeho gukorora cyangwa kwitsamura hakagira umwanda na mucye usohoka.

Iyo virusi imara igihe gito ifite ubuzima iyo iri hanze y’umubiri w’umuntu, rero bisaba ko abantu baba begeranye kugira ngo yandure.

Mu mwaka wa 2014, icyorezo cya Ebola cyasakaye binyuze mu maraso cyangwa andi matembabuzi ava mu mubiri, gusa abahuye mu buryo bwegeranye ni bo bayanduye.

Ariko si virusi zose zandura mu buryo bw’umuntu umwe uyanduza undi. Ndetse na Zika, abantu bandura ivuye mu mibu, nayo irushaho kwandura iyo abantu begeranye.

Imibu itera Zika yororokera mu bice by’imijyi aho itungwa n’amaraso y’abantu. Yororoka neza mu bice bituwe mu buryo bw’ubucucike, ahantu hahehereye ndetse n’ahashushye by’akazuyazi.

Abatuye Wuhan bararirimba mu guhitisha umwanya
Kuva mu 2007 abantu barushijeho gutura mu mijyi kurusha mu byaro. Abantu barenga miliyari enye ubu batuye ku gice kingana na 1% by’ubuso bw’ubutaka bw’iyi si dutuyeho.

Kandi imijyi myinshi turi kwimukiramo ntabwo itwiteguye. Rero abantu benshi birangira batuye ahantu h’akajagari aho babura amazi meza ndetse n’uburyo bwiza bwo kuyobora imyanda (sewage system).

Rero indwara ikwirakwira byihuse.

Abakozi batera umuti mu ndege muri Thailand mu mwaka wa 2015 mu kwirinda indwara yo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero ya ’Middle East Respiratory Syndrome’
Indege, gariyamoshi n’imodoka, ibyo bivuze ko virusi ishobora kugera mu ntera igera mu cyakabiri cy’isi mu gihe kitageze ku munsi.

Mu byumweru bicye bishize coronavirus igaragaraye, habonetse abayicyekwaho mu bihugu birenga 16.

Mu mwaka ushize wa 2019, kompanyi z’indege zatwaye abagenzi miliyari 4.5 - mu myaka icumi yabanje zari zatwaye gusa abagenzi miliyari 2.4.

Wuhan ni hamwe mu hantu h’ingenzi ho mu Bushinwa hanyura za gariyamoshi zigenda ku muvuduko wo hejuru.

Kandi iyo virusi yahagaragaye ubwo Ubushinwa bwiteguraga ubutembere bwa mbere bukozwe n’abantu benshi mu mateka y’isi.

Ingendo zirenga miliyari eshatu zikorwa mu Bushinwa mu ntangiriro y’umwaka wo muri iki gihugu.

Kimwe mu byorezo bibi cyane byabayeho ni icyitwa influenza - kizwi ku izina rya ’Spanish flu’ - cyabayeho kuva mu mwaka wa 1918 kugera mu 1920.

Cyadutse i Burayi ubwo nabwo habaga urundi rujya n’uruza runini rw’abantu, intambara ya mbere y’isi iri kurangira.

Mu gihe ibyo bicurane byakwiragiraga, abasirikare bari barimo gusubira iwabo mu bihugu baturutsemo, bava ku rugamba, batahana ibyo bicurane.

Bajyanye iyo virusi aho baba, mu bantu batari barateguye uburyo bwo kuyirwanya, bituma ubwirinzi bw’umubiri w’umuntu bugubwa gitumo neza neza.

Mu gihe cy’icyorezo cya ’influenza’ mu mwaka wa 1918, inzu zibikwamo ibikoresho zarahinduwe mu gukomeza gutuma abanduye batanduza abandi.

Ubushakashatsi bumwe bw’impuguke mu bya virusi, John Oxford, buvuga ko intandaro y’iyo virusi ishobora kuba yari inkambi abasirikare barenga 100,000 bacagamo buri munsi.

Ndetse no mu gihe cya mbere y’ingendo zo mu ndege, icyo cyorezo cyakwiragiye hafi muri buri gice cy’isi. Cyahitanye abantu babarirwa hagati ya miliyoni 50 na miliyoni 100.

Ariko icyo cyorezo cya ’Spanish flu’ cyafashe igihe kiri hagati y’amezi atandatu n’amezi icyenda ngo kibashe gukwirakwira ku isi.

Muri iyi si y’ubu aho dushobora kuyitembera yose mu munsi umwe, ubundi bwoko bushya bwa virusi bwo bushobora gukwirakwira byihuse kurushaho.

Inyama zariyongereye, inyamaswa zariyongereye, indwara ziriyongera
Ebola, SARS, noneho ubu na Wuhan coronavirus, ni ndwara zandura ziterwa na virusi - zandujwe abantu zivuye ku nyamaswa.

Ubu bwoko bushya bwa coronavirus busa nk’ubwaturutse mu isoko ry’inyama ry’i Wuhan - amakuru y’ibanze avuga ko ishobora kuba yaravuye ku nzoka zikiri nzima.

Muri iyi minsi hafi indwara eshatu muri buri ndwara enye nshya ziterwa n’inyamaswa.

Uko abantu bakunda inyama ku isi biri kwiyongera, ubworozi bw’amatungo atanga umusaruro w’ibiribwa ndetse n’ayororerwa kwishimisha buri kwaguka.

Niko ibice bimwe by’isi byiyongeramo abakire ndetse bakayoboka n’amafunguro arimo inyama.

Ibicurane biterwa na virusi, abantu bakunze kubyandura binyuze mu matungo boroye, rero ubushobozi bwo kuba amatungo yanduye ashobora kugira aho ahurira n’abantu nabwo bwariyongereye.

Virusi zo mu bwoko bwa coronavirus zisimbuka ziva mu nyamaswa zo mu gasozi zikajya mu bantu.

Mu Bushinwa, amasoko acuruzwamo inyamaswa zikiri nzima ndetse n’acuruzwamo inyama aramenyerewe mu bice bituwe mu bucucike.

Ibyo bishobora kuba byasobanura impamvu ibyorezo bibiri biherutse byavuye muri ibyo bice bituwe mu buryo bw’ubucucike.

Ikindi, uko imijyi dutuyemo yaguka, turushaho gusatira ibice by’icyaro aho abantu bagira aho bahurira n’inyamaswa zo mu gasozi.

Virusi ya ’Lassa fever’ nayo ni indi virusi ikwira muri ubu buryo - uko abantu batema amashyamba ngo bahinge kuri ubwo butaka, imbeba zo mu gasozi zahungiye mu ngo zihajyana iyo virusi.

Urebye ntabwo twiteguye
Nubwo isi isigaye imeze nk’iyabaye umudugudu umwe cyane kurusha mu kindi gihe cyigeze kubaho mbere, ntabwo turagira uburyo buhuriweho nk’isi bwo guhangana n’ibishobora gutera ibyorezo tubisanze aho bituruka.

Mu guhagarika indwara yandura, ducungira gusa kuri leta yo muri icyo gihugu iyo ndwara yatangiriyemo. Iyo iyo leta inaniwe, abatuye isi bose bibashyira mu kaga.

Nta handi ibyo byagaragaye kurushaho kurusha muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba mu gihe cy’icyorezo cya Ebola, ubwo inzego z’ubuvuzi zo muri Guinea, Liberia na Sierra Leone zananirwaga guhagarika ikwirakwira ryayo.

Ebola yishe abantu 11,310 muri Afurika y’uburengerazuba.

By’amahire ku batuye isi, iyo ni virusi urebye ikwirakwira gahoro, ariko virusi zo mu myanya y’ubuhumekero nka ’influenza’ cyangwa coronavirus zikwirakwira byihuse cyane.

Biba bibi kandi kurushaho kuko haba hari ibyago byinshi byuko indwara nk’izo ziba zishobora kwandurira mu bice bituwe n’abakene aho inzego z’ubuvuzi zifite intege nke.

Kuba nta mategeko n’ubukangurambaga ku isuku n’isukura, ndetse n’abaturage batuye mu bucucike, byose byongera ibyago by’indwara nk’izo.

Kandi nanone byinshi muri ibyo bihugu byugarijwe n’ikibazo cyuko abikomokamo bo mu rwego rw’ubuzima bakomeje kubivamo bajya mu mahanga aho bizeye akazi keza kurushaho (bizwi nka ’brain drain’).

Inzego nke cyane z’ubuzima ku isi ni zo ziba zifite ubushake bwo gushora ubushobozi - muri bucye zifite - mu kwitegura indwara zikaze cyane biba bishobora kurangira zitanageze muri ibyo bihugu.

Ubwo ibicurane by’ingurube - bizwi nka ’swine flu’ - byadukaga, habayeho uburyo bwo gukwirakwiza imiti ku isi, ariko iyo gahunda yaranenzwe bivugwa ko uburyo bwo kubirwanya bwabayemo gukabya kuko byaje kugaragara ko byari ibicurane byoroheje cyane.

Nubwo rwose dufite ikoranabuhanga ryo gukora imiti ishobora kurinda zimwe muri izi virusi, ntabwo ibyo biba bihagije kugira ngo kompanyi zikora imiti zumve zashoramo amafaranga gutyo gusa.

Niba virusi runaka izica gusa abantu babarirwa mu bihumbi bicye, nta mafaranga izo kompanyi zikora imiti ziba zumva zizabibonamo.

Nubwo tuba tuzi ko izo ndwara ziri hafi kutugeraho, kuri nyinshi muri zo ntituba dushobora kumenya ngo zizatugeraho ryari cyangwa hehe, kandi kwaduka kw’indwara zandura hafi buri gihe zitugwa gitumo.

Nubwo ubu turi kubona indwara nyinshi yanduza abantu benshi kurusha mu bindi bihe byabayeho mbere, abantu bacye ugereranyije na mbere ni bo barwara zikanabahitana.

Ibi bikubiye mu bushakashatsi bw’ikigo cya siyansi cya Royal Society cyo mu Bwongereza.

Iyo ubukungu bwiyongera byihuse, nkuko twabibonye mu Bushinwa, isuku y’ibanze no kugera ku bikorwa by’ubuvuzi bitera imbere. Ni nako bigenda ku bukangurambaga bwo kwirinda kwandura izo ndwara.

Ubuvuzi buba bwiza kurushaho, abantu benshi kurushaho bagera kuri ubwo buvuzi kandi dukomeje no gutera imbere mu buryo bwo kwirinda indwara. Inkingo ziri gukorwa mu buryo bwihuse kurushaho.

Nubwo uburyo bwo ku rwego rw’isi bwo guhangana n’ibiza atari shyashya, dukomeje gutera imbere mu buryo bwo gutahura no kugira igikorwa iyo bigaragaye.

Igihugu nk’Ubushinwa gishobora kubaka ibitaro birimo ibitanda 1,000 by’abarwayi mu gihe cy’icyumweru kimwe, ikintu cyari kuba ari nk’inzozi gusa mu mwaka wa 1918.

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