Inkomo y’umupira w’amaguru igice cya II

Nk’uko twagarutse ku gice cya mbere cy’inkomoko y’umupira w’amaguru, ushobora kwibaza uburyo uyu mukino washinze imizi ku isi ndetse n’uburyo wagiye ushyirwamo ingamba kugira ngo ukinwe nta kavuyo harimo no gushinga amashyirahamwe yawo yari ahagarariwe n’Impuzamashyirahamwe ku isi FIFA.

Amakipi y’umupira w’amaguru yabayeho kuva mu kinyejana cya 15, ariko icyo gihe nta kipe n’imwe yabaga ifite ubuzima gatozi. Biragoye rero guhitamo ikipe y’umupira w’amaguru ya mbere yabayeho muri izo zabaga zidafite ubuzimagatozi. Gusa nubwo bimeze gutyo, bamwe mu bahanga mu by’amateka bavuga ko ikipe ya mbere y’umupira w’amaguru yashinzwe mu 1824 i Edinburgh.

Icyo gihe wasangaga amakipe yose yashingwaga, atari ay’umwuga ahubwo yabaga ashingiye cyane ku banyeshuri babaga bashaka ibyo bakina i Sheffield mu mwaka wa 1855.

Ikipe ya mbere yabayeho mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko ifite ubuzima gatozi yari iyo mu Bwongereza yitwaga Notts County yashinzwe mu 1862 n’ubu iracyahari.

Mu ntangiriro z’umupira w‘amaguru, wakunze kwiganzamo cyane amakipe n’amashuri ya leta, ariko nyuma haje kwiyongeraho amakipe y’abakozi ibintu bitangira guhinduka, uwari umukino w’abanyeshuri, rubanda batangira kuwugiramo uruhare.

Iyindi mpinduka yagiye ikurikirana no gusakara k’umupira w’amaguru nuko amakipe amwe n’amwe yemeye kwishyura abakinnyi beza binjira mu makipe yabo (kugura no kugurishanya abakinnyi). Maze umupira w’amaguru utangira gukinwa kinyamwug ku isi.

Mu myaka ya 1880 ubwo imikino imwe n’imwe yari yaratangiye kuba, inyungu zagiye ziyongera ku rwego rwo hejuru. Kuko bamwe aho bakiniraga, hatangiye kugurishwa amatike yo kwinjira ku bantu babaga bashaka kureba umukino.

Mu 1885 umupira w’amaguru w’ababigize umwuga wemewe ku mugaragaro nyuma y’imyaka itatu hashyizweho Ligue. Muri iyo league, yakinwemo n’amakipe 12 nayo yaje kwishimira imitegurire yaryo ngo kuko bahabwaga ikizere ko haziyongeraho n’andi marushanwa.

Bitewe nuko iyi mikino yashingiwe mu Bwongereza, igihe kinini amakipe yaho niyo yiganzaga cyane. Nyuma y’imyaka ibarirwa muri za mirongo, amakipe yo muri Prague, Budapest na Siane nayo yatangiye urugamba rwo gushaka uburyo bakwinjira mu Bwongereza kugira ngo nabo bakine bitewe nuko uyu mukino bari barawukundishijwe n’abamisiyoneri bari baragiye muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika.

Amarushanwa ya mbere

Ishyirahamwe ry’umupira w’amaguru mu Bwongereza (FA) rimaze kuvuka, ryashyizeho irushanwa rya mbere ryitwa FA Cup mu 1871. Umwaka ukurikira umukino wahuje amakipe y’ibihugu abiri yakinnye bwa mbere, ni umukino wahuje u Bwongereza na Scotland aho warangiye amakipe yombi anganya 0-0, icyo gihe uyu mukino wabereye i Hamilton Crescent ukurikirwa n’abantu 4000.

Nyuma y’imyaka 12 umupira w’amaguru utangiye gukinwa mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko ugengwa na FA mu 1883, amarushanwa mpuzamahanga ya mbere yatangiye kuba. Irushanwa rya mbere ry’amakipe y’ibihugu ryitabiriwe n’amakipe ane (4) arimo u Bwongereza, Irelande, Scotland na Wales.

Umupira w’amaguru wari umaze igihe kinini mu Bwongereza, ariko buhoro buhoro ukwira mu bindi bihugu by’Uburayi ndetse no mu bindi bihugu byo ku isi cyane cyane ku mugabane w’Amerika.

Umukino wa mbere wabereye hanze y’Uburayi wabereye muri Arijantine mu 1867, uyu mukino wagizwemo uruhare n’abakozi b’Abongereza bari barimo gukorera muri icyo gihugu.

Umupira w’Amaguru wakomeje gutera imbere, maze abanyaburayi bahita bashinga impuzamashyirahamwe igomba kubayoborera uyu mukino.

Impuzamashyirahamwe y’umupira w’amaguru ku isi FIFA ( Fédération Internationale de Football) ryashinzwe mu 1904. Icyo gihe ibihugu birimo u Bufaransa, u Bubiligi, Danemarike, u Buholandi, Espagne, Suwede n’Ubusuwisi, byahise bishyiraho umukono ku masezerano agomba gukomeza uyu mukino no kuwegurira FIFA ngo iwugenge.

U Bwongereza hamwe n’ibindi bihugu bibarirwa mu bwami bw’iki gihugu, ntabwo byinjiye muri FIFA igitangira gukora, ahubwo bo kuko bumvaga barahimbye umukino bumvaga badashobora kugandukira iyo mpuzamashyirahamwe. Aha byari mu mwaka wa 1904.

Kuva muri uwo mwaka FIFA yashingiwemo, ibihugu bitandukanye byatangiye gukina shampiyona zabyo. Nkuko twigeze kubivuga, Shampiyona y’umupira w’amaguru mu Bwongereza niyo yabayeho bwa mbere kuko yashinzwe mu 1888.

Bitewe n’amikoro y’amakipe yagendaga agura akanagursisha abakinnyi, umupira w’amaguru wahindutse ishoramari ndetse ugenda unatera imbere. Mu 1908 umupira w’amaguru wemewe bwa mbere na komite Olempike.

Impuzamashyirahamwe y’Umupira w’amaguru ku isi FIFA byayifashe imyaka 26 kugira ngo itegure igikombe cya mbere cy’isi cyabaye mu 1930. Iki gikombe ntabwo kigeze kitabirwa n’abagore, ahubwo cyari icy’Abagabo gusa, mu gihe cyo igikombe cya mbere cy’isi cy’abagore cyabaye mu 1996.

Abakinnyi b’abirabura batangiye gukina ryari?

Kimwe no mu yindi mikino myinshi abazungu nibo biganza cyane, mu mupira w’amaguru abakinnyi b’abirabura batangiye kuboneka mu myaka ya kera mu 1880. Mu Bwongereza, Andrew Watson azwiho kuba umukinnyi wa mbere w’umwirabura wakinnye mu ikipe ya Scottish club Queen’s Park mu myaka ya 1880.

Kubera iki wiswe umukino w’ishyaka kandi urebwa cyane?

Abareba imikino itandukanye, bemeza ko umupira w’amaguru ukunzwe cyane ku rusha iyindi mikino iri ku isi. Ibi bigaragarira cyane cyane ku bibuga byakira iyi siporo kuko biba byuzuyeho abantu benshi, yewe n’ibarura rikorerwa abantu bareba televiziyo, rigaragaza ko abantu bawukurikira ari benshi bityo bikagaragaza ishyaka ryinshi yaba ku bawureba ndetse n’abawukina.

Mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19, ikibuga cya Goodison Park cyubatswe mu Bwongereza hagamijwe kwakira imikino y’umupira w’amaguru. Mu 1894, umukino wanyuma wa FA Cup wahuje Notts County na Bolton Wanderers witabiriwe nabantu 37.000.

Intambwe ikomeye mu gutezimbere ibibuga by’umupira w’amaguru kandi, ni iyubakwa rya Stade Maracanã, mu mwaka wa 1950, stade iri i Rio de Janeiro muri Brezile yari yiteguye kwakira abantu bagera ku bihumbi 200.000. Ntayindi siporo yabonye stade ifite ubushobozi bwo kwakira abantu nk’abo mu yiondi mikino.

Icyo gihe ku ruhande rw’imifanire, habayeho imigenzo ibiri itandukanye y’umuco w’abafana kubibuga hagati y’Abongereza na Abanyamerika yepfo.

Muri icyo gihe, Abafana b’Abongereza bafanaga mu buryo bwo kuririmba, Ku rundi ruhande Abanyamerika yepfo bari gukoresha uburyo bwa karinivali burimo imyirongi ndetse n’ibindi bikoresho byirangiraga.

Kuva FIFA yashinga imizi, nta kindi gikorwa cy’imikino cyangwa irindi shyirahamwe ryashoboraga kubangamira imibereho y’itegurwa ry’imikino yayo uretse imikino Olempike yo yakundaga kubaho mu mpeshyi.

Igikombe cya mbere cyateguwe na FIFA cyakinywe mu 1930 muri Uruguay. Kuva icyo gihe cyagarukaga buri myaka ine usibye inshuro ebyiri kitabaye kubera bibiri kubera Intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose. Mu 1991 Igikombe cya mbere cy’Isi cy’abagore cyabereye mu Bushinwa, kuva icyo gihe nacyo gikinwa nyuma ya buri myaka ine.

Uyu munsi amarushanwa akomeye ku isi mu makipe ni Champions League “Irushanwa ry’amakipe yabaye aya mbere iwayo.” (yakinwe kuva 1992). Iri rushanwa ryahoze ari Igikombe cy’Uburayi hagati y’imyaka ya 1955–1991).

Mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19, amakipe make y’umupira w’amaguru y’ibihugu yabayeho ni u Bwongereza na Scotland. Ibi bihugu byombi byanakinnye umukino hagati yabyo mu 1870.

Uyu munsi hari amashyirahamwe y’umupira w’amaguru 211 y’ibihugu yose abarizwa mu Impuzamashyirahamwe y’umupira w’amaguru ku Isi FIFA nk’urwego ruyobora siporo y’umupira w’amaguru ku isi.

Ikindi kimenyetso cyerekana ko isi igenda igaragara mu kwiyongera kw’ibihugu byitabira amajonjora y’igikombe cyisi, nuko mu mwaka wa 1934 ibihugu byitabiraga byari 32 kuri ubu bikaba byitabira ari 200.

Nyuma yuko umupira w’amaguru uteye imbere, kuri ubu imigabane ituye isi igabanyijemo amashyirahamwe 6: Confédération Africaine de Football (CAF), Ishyirahamwe ry’umupira wamaguru muri Aziya (AFC), Union des Associations Européennes de Football (UEFA), Ishyirahamwe ry’amajyaruguru, Amerika yo hagati hamwe n’umupira wamaguru wa Karayibe (CONCACAF), Ishyirahamwe ry’umupira w’amaguru muri Oceania (OFC), na Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL).

Umupira w’Amaguru wageze mu Rwanda gute?

Mu Rwanda nta gihe kizwi neza uyu mukino waba warahagere, gusa muri iyi nkuru turifashisha bimwe mu bitangazamakuru byayanditseho birimo na Celebs, kugira ngo turebere hamwe uburyo uyu mukino wakinwaga n’abazungu wageze mu Rwanda.

Kugeza magingo aya, nta nkuru y’impamo itwemeza umunsi nyawo umupira w’amaguru wagereye mu Rwanda. Gusa dukurikije inyandiko zatangajwe na bamwe mu bakurambere bacu, bemeza ko uwo mukino w’umupira w’amaguru mu Rwanda wazanywe n’abamisiyoneri b’abadage ku ngoma y’umwami MUSINGA wategetse u Rwanda kuva mu w’i 1896 kugeza 1931.

Uwari kw’isonga ryabo ba misiyoneri ba Kiriziya Gatolika yari Padiri SCHUMACHER umudage wabaga i Kabgayi. Imihango yo kwerekana uwo mukino mushya yabereye i Nyanza ahari umurwa mukuru w’ubwami icyo gihe, nuko umwami MUSINGA n’abafasha be bakirana ibyishimo byinshi uwo mukino mushya w’umupira w’amaguru.

Mu banyarwanda bambere bakojeje ikirenge kuri “ruhago” havugwa cyane Shefu NSHOZAMIHIGO umuhungu w’umwami RWABUGIRI ndetse ngo ni nawe munyarwanda wa mbere wateye igitego mu izamu igihe bari mu myitozo i Kabgayi.

Undi mukinnyi wari ukomeye icyo gihe twavuga n’uwitwa MABONEZA Ferederiko (reba ifoto hasi) wakinaga mu ikipe y’Amagaju kwa shefu RUTAREMARA Rwugubugi rwa Ngenzi w’i Kibeho na KAREMERA Karawudiyani wakinaga mu maregure ya Mutara wa III RUDAHIGWA.

Umusaza MABONEZA Ferederiko wabaye umukinnyi ukomeye umupira w’amaguru ugitangira mu Rwanda.(Yitabye Imana taliki ya 11/04/2013).

Mu w’i 1931 RUDAHIGWA yasimbuye Se MUSINGA wari umaze gukurwa ku bwami n’abazungu, maze yimikwa kw’izina ry’ubwami rya Mutara III (1931-1959).

Kuri iyo ngoma rero nibwo hashinzwe amakipe hirya no hino mu gihugu, amenshi akaba yari ashingiye ku mitwe y’ingabo cyangwa se abataramiraga ku mugoroba kuba shefu babo.

Muri ayo makipe twavuga nk’ Amagaju yo kwa shefu RUTAREMARA, Amaregure y’umwami Mutara III RUDAHIGWA, Amasata yo kwa shefu NKURANGA ku Gasoro na Mutende hafi y’i Nyanza.

Andi makipe yakurikiyeho yabaga ari ay’ibigo by’aba misiyoneri gatolika: nk’Ingabo nziza z’i Kabgayi kwa padiri SCHUMACHER. Buri kipe kandi yabaga ifite indirimbo yayo, abakinnyi baririmbaga mbere na nyuma yo gukina.

Icyo gihe ayo makipe yakinaga hagati yayo imikino myinshi ya gicuti ndetse rimwe na rimwe no mu rwego mpuzamahanga n’amakipe y’i Bujumbura-Burundi na Bukavu-Congo ex-Zaire, (ibi byanditswe no muri za Kinyamateka zo mu myaka ya 1940-1950).

Bitewe n’ikurwaho ry’intebe y’ubwami mu Rwanda icyo gihe yicarwagaho na Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, taliki ya 25 nzeri 1961 habaye itora rya Kamarampaka nuko icyo cyifuzo cya Repubulika ariyo soko ya Demokarasi kirahama, maze taliki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962 Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’isi (ONU) itangaza ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda.

Ibyo byose rero byatumye ya makipe menshi y’umupira w’amaguru yari yarashingiwe i Nyanza mu ndiri y’ubwami yose atongera kuboneka, maze uwo mukino w’umupira w’amaguru mu Rwanda usa nkaho wibagiranye pe.

Nyuma yaho u Rwanda ruboneye ubwigenge hatangiye kuza agahenge, nibwo mu myaka yakurikiyeho hagati ya 1962 na1969, andi makipe mashya yongeye kuvuka, maze abakunda uwo mukino bongera kubona akanya ko kwihitiramo no kogeza amakipe yabo mu mikino y’amarushamwa anyuranye yariho icyo gihe.

Amenshi muri ayo makipe yatangiye afite andi mazina nyuma aza kuvamo za: Mukura Victory Sports y’i Butare (1963), Kiyovu Sports y’i Kigali (1964) mbere yitwaga Kigali Sports, Standard-Rwinkwavu y’i Kibungo (1964), Rayon Sports y’i Nyanza-Butare (1965), Panthères Noires y’i Kigali (1965) na Espoir football club y’i Cyangugu (1969)

Ubwo umupira w’amaguru mu Rwanda watangiraga gushinga imizi, kuva mu mwaka wa 1991 ntabwo byagenze neza bitewe n’umutekano muke wari mu gihugu.

Byaje no gutuma habaho Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri Mata 1994, igahitana ubuzima bwa bamwe mu bakunzi b’uyu mukino ndetse tutibagiwe n’abawukinnye.

Dusubiye inyuma gato, nyuma yuko umupira w’Amaguru utangiye gutera imbere, Abantu bamwe bafashe icyemezo cyo gushyiraho Ishyirahamwe ry’umupira w’amaguru mu Rwanda (FERWAFA) ryashinzwe mu 1972 rihinduka ishami rya FIFA na CAF mu 1978.

Nicyo kigo cyonyine kigenga umupira w’amaguru mu Rwanda kandi cyemewe na leta y’u Rwanda kuruhande rumwe ndetse na FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association) hamwe na CAF (Confederation Africaine de Football) nkabanyamuryango babo kurundi ruhande. Ryashyizweho kugira ngo rireberere umupira w’Abanyarwanda.

Mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1999 no mu myaka y’ i 2000 nibwo umupira w’amaguru mu Rwanda wongeye kugarura agahenge ndetse ukomeza gutera intambwe igaragara bituma ikipe y’igihugu y’umupira w’amaguru “Amavubi” mu mwaka w’i 1999 itwara igikombe cy’ibihugu by’afurika yo hagati n’iburasirazuba CECAFA (itsinze ikipe ya Kenya ibitego 3 kuri 1).

Mu mwaka wa 2000 itwara igikombe cya COMESA (Afrique Orientale et Australe), ndetse mu myaka ya 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 na 2011 igera no ku mukino wa nyuma w’igikombe cya CECAFA.

U Rwanda rwagize amahirwe yo kwitabira igikombe cya Afurika cyabaye mu mwaka wa 2004, kibifashijwemo n’abakinnyi batandukanye barimo Jimy Gatete n’abandi.

Icyo gihe ntabwo rwabashije kwitwara neza, kuko rwatsinze umukino umwe, runganya undi, rutsindwa undi. Ibi nibyo bihe byiza abanyarwanda batazibagirwa mu mupira w’Amaguru.

Mu gice cya nyuma k’iki cyegeranyo, tuzegera bamwe mu bakanyujijeho cyera ndetse n’abandi bazi amateka y’uyu mupira w’maguru mu Rwanda, bawuzi kuva ugitangira kugera magingo aya.

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